Anatomy of the Heart

The heart is the muscular pump in the centre of the chest that beats continuously and rhythmically to send blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. It is located on the diaphragm between the lower borders of the lungs, occupying the middle of the mediastinum. It is covered ventrally by the sternum and the adjoining parts from the third to the sixth costal cartilages. The organ is about 12 cm long, 8 cm wide at its broadest part, and 6 cm thick. The weight of the heart in men averages between 280 and 340 g and in women, between 230 and 280 g. Much of the heart consists of myocardium, a special type of muscle. The heart muscle is supplied with oxygen and nutrients by 2 coronary arteries.

The internal surface of the heart is lined with a smooth membrane, called endocardium, and the entire heart is enclosed in a tough, membranous bag, the pericardium. A thick central muscular wall, the septum, divides the heart cavity into right and left halves. Each half consists of an upper chamber, called an atrium, and a larger lower chamber, called a ventricle. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the entire body via 2 large veins called the venae cavae. This blood is transferred to the right ventricle and pumped to the lungs via the pulmonary artery to be oxygenated and to lose carbon dioxide. The left atrium of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs (via the pulmonary veins); this blood is transferred to the left ventricle and then pumped to all tissues in the body.

The valves of the heart include the tricuspid valve, the bicuspid (mitral) valve, the semilunar aortic valve, and the semilunar pulmonary valve. The sinoatrial node in the right atrium of the heart initiates the cardiac impulse, causing the atria to contract. These one-way valves at the exits from each chamber ensure that blood flows in only 1 direction. As resistance to blood flow through the general circulation is much greater than resistance through the lungs, the left side of the heart must contract more forcibly than the right one that’s why it has greater muscular bulk.

Exercise 7. Answer the questions:

1. What is the heart?

2. Where is it located?

3. What is the average weight of the heart in men and women?

4. What supplies the heart with oxygen and nutrients?

5. What is the heart enclosed in?

6. What does septum serve for?

7. What does each half of the heart consist of?

8. What are the valves of the heart?

9. What is the function of the right atrium?

10. What is the function of the left atrium?

11. What do one-way valves at the exits from each chamber ensure?

12. Why does the left side of the heart have greater muscular bulk?

Exercise 8. Match the two columns:

1. to pump 2. to contract 3. to oxygenate 4. to deoxygenate 5. to receive 6. to transfer 7. to enclose 8. to divide into 9. to supply 10. to compose of a) to put together or make up by combining b) to separate into parts c) to acquire or get something d) to surround on all sides; close in e) to enrich with oxygen f) to raise or cause to flow by means of a pump g) to make available for use; provide h) to reduce in size by drawing together; shrink i) to convey or remove something from one place to another j) to deprive of oxygen

Exercise 9. Fill in the gaps using the verbs from the previous exercise:

1. A thick central muscular wall, the septum, … the heart cavity into right and left halves.

2. Two coronary arteries … the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients.

3. The pulmonary veins are large blood vessels that … oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of then heart.

4. Blood is … in the lungs.

5. The heart is … in the pericardium.

6. The right atrium … deoxygenated blood from the entire body via 2 large veins called the venae cavae.

7. Both atria … simultaneously, followed quickly by the simultaneous contraction of the ventricles.

8. The wall of the heart … three layers: the epicardium, the myocardium, and the endocardium.

9. The heart is a chambered muscular organ in vertebrates that … blood received from the veins into the arteries, thereby maintaining the flow of blood through the entire circulatory system.

10. This blood is transferred to the right ventricle and pumped to the lungs via the pulmonary artery to be ….

Exercise 10. Match the terms with their definitions:

1. atrium 2. endocardium 3. pericardium 4. myocardium 5. ventricle 6. septum 7. valve 8. venae cavae 9. mediastinum 10. heart a) the hollow muscular organ in vertebrates whose contractions propel the blood through the circulatory system; b) a dividing partition between two tissues or cavities; c) any device that shuts off, starts, regulates, or controls the flow of a fluid; d) a cavity or chamber in the body, especially the upper chamber of each half of the heart; e) a chamber of the heart, having thick muscular walls, that receives blood from the atrium and pumps it to the arteries; f) the part of the thoracic cavity that lies between the lungs, containing the heart and its vessels; g) the membranous sac enclosing the heart. It fixes the heart to the mediastinum and gives protection against infection; h) the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the valves and provides protection to the valves and heart chambers; i) the muscle tissue of the heart, which forms a thick middle layer between the outer epicardium layer and the inner endocardium layer; j) are large veins that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart (the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava) and both empty into the right atrium


Exercise 11. Make questions to the underlined words:

1. The heart beats continuously and rhythmically to send blood to the lungs.

2. Much of the heart consists of myocardium.

3. The heart muscle is supplied with oxygen by 2 coronary arteries.

4. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the entire body.

5. The left atrium of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.

6. One-way valves ensure that blood flows in only 1 direction.

7. The left side of the heart must contract more forcibly than the right one.

8. Tricuspid valve lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

9. Descending aorta is the body’s main artery, which supplies oxygenated blood.

10. The aorta has a large diameter in order to cope with the high pressure and large volume of blood passing through it.

Exercise 12. Find the corresponding equivalents in the text:

М’язовий насос, складатися з 2-х передсердь та двох шлуночків, вивільняти вуглекислий газ, скорочуватись безперервно та ритмічно, велике коло кровообігу, внутрішня та зовнішня оболонки серця, більша м’язова маса, верхня та нижня камери, скорочуватися з більшою силою, розташовуватись на діафрагмі, нижні межі легенів, реберні хрящі, кисень та поживні речовини, внутрішня поверхня серця, камера серця, гладенька оболонка, позбавлена кисню кров, дво- та тристулковий клапан.

Exercise 13. Translate the words in brackets:

The human heart provides a (тривалий) blood circulation through the cardiac cycle and is one of the most vital organs in the human body. It (містить) four (камери): the two (верхні камери) are called the left and right (передсердя) and two (нижні камери) are called the right and left (шлуночки). Normally the right ventricle (качає) the same blood amount into the lungs with each bit that the left ventricle pumps out. Physicians commonly refer to the right atrium and right ventricle together as the right heart and to the left atrium and ventricle as the left heart.

The electric energy that stimulates the heart occurs in the (синусно-передсердний) node, which produces a definite potential and then (відправляє), sending an impulse across the atria. The Purkinje fibers transmit the electric charge to the myocardium while the (клітини) of the atrial walls (передають) it from cell to cell, making the atrial syncytium. Syntytium is a mass of cytoplasm which contains many nuclei and is enclosed in a cell membrane.

Exercise 14. Open the brakets and translate the following sentences:

1. The blood also (to carry) nutrients from the liver and gastrointestinal tract to various organs of the body.

2. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (to be) the most common cause of death globally in 2008.

3. Diagnosis of CVD often (to do) by listening to the heart-sounds with a stethoscope, ECG or by ultrasound.

4. The valves of the heart (to discover) by a physician of the Hippocratean school around the 4th century BC.

5. Diseases of the heart primarily (to treat) by cardiologists.

6. In humans birds the heart (to divide) into four chambers.

7. The heart (to contract) at a rate of around 72 beats per minute, at rest.

8. On dissection, arteries (to be) typically empty of blood.

9. The earliest descriptions of the coronary and pulmonary circulation systems can (to find) in Avicenna's Canon, published in 1242.

10. Heart murmurs (to be) common in young children and the elderly.

Exercise 15. Speak about THE HEART, ATRIUM, VENTRICLE according to the scheme:

· definition

· location

· structure

· general characteristics

· function

Exercise 16. Translate into Engish using Active Vocabulary:

1. Серце людини – це порожнистий фіброзно-м'язовий орган, що запезпечує безперервний кровообіг.

2. Маса серця дорослої людини становить 250-350 г.

3. Серце розташоване у центрі грудної клітини, у нижній частині переднього середостіння, у перикарді.

4. Зовнішня стінка серця складається з трьох шарів: епікарду, міокарду та ендокарду.

5. Серце людини є чотирикамерним: дві верхні камери називаються правим та лівим передсердями, дві нижні- правим та лівим шлуночками.

6. Передсердя сполучається з відповідним шлуночком за допомогою отвору, в якому знаходиться клапан.

7. У серцевому циклі кожне з передсердь скорочується, через отвір кров потрапляє у відповідний шлуночок; після чого скорочуються шлуночки, виштовхуючи кров у мале та велике коли кровообігу.

8. Зоб запезпечити рух крові до шлуночків в одному напрямку, між ними та артеріями знаходяться аортальний і легеневий клапани.

Exercise 17. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “heart”:

1. It is located on the diaphragm between the lower borders of the lungs, occupying the middle of the mediastinum.

2. The human heart provides the blood circulation through the cardiac cycle and is one of the most vital organs in the human body

3. The organ is about 12 cm long, 8 cm wide at its broadest part, and 6 cm thick, and weights from 230 to 340 g.

4. The heart is the muscular pump in the centre of the chest that beats continuously and rhythmically to send blood to the lungs and the rest of the body.

5. A thick central muscular wall, the septum, divides the heart cavity into right and left halves; each half consists of an upper chamber, called an atrium, and a larger lower chamber, called a ventricle.

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: м’язовий насос внутрішня оболонкa серця складатися з передсердь та шлуночків велике та мале коло кровообігу скорочуватись безперервно та ритмічно вивільняти вуглекислий газ синусно-передсердний вузол позбавлена кисню кров середня вага серця качати кров через вени та судини   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: Where is the heart located? What does each half of the heart consist of? What do one-way valves at the exits from each chamber ensure? What is the function of the atria? What is the function of the ventricles?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Серце Передсердя Шлуночок
Physiology of the Heart

Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:

beat, n ['bi:t] биття
chamber, n [´t∫eimbə] камера
considerable, adj [kən´sidərəbl] значний
depend on, v [di´pend] залежити від
discharge, v [dis´t∫a:dƷ] виділяти
estimate, v [´estimeit] оцінювати
exertion, n [ig´zə:∫(ə)n] напруження, зусилля
prolong, v [prə´lɔŋ] продовжувати
pump, n, v [pΛmp] насос, накачувати
rate, n [reit] частота, швидкість
wave, n [weiv] хвиля

Exercise 2. Guess the meaning of the following words without using a dictionary:

Moment, pump, period, artery, nerve, to regulate, emotion, cycle, person, phase, aorta, circulation, role, portion, systole, diastole

Exercise 3. a) Read the following word-combinations and translate them:

Exertion:physical exertion, mental exertion, considerable exertion, extreme exertion, on exertion.

Rate: heartbeat rate, pulse rate, death rate, birth rate, respiration rate, recovery rate.

Considerable:considerable attention, considerable danger, considerable discomfort, considerable weight, considerable pressure, considerable effort.

Total:total area, total immunity, total loss, total size, total duration, total increase.

b) Make up short sentences using the above given word combinations:

Exercise 4. Translate the following word combinations:

Total weight of blood, the rate of contractions, research work, a wave of contraction, on physical exertion, pulmonary arteries, to discharge out blood, final portion, systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, to estimate the number of cells.

Exercise 5. Translate into your native language. Pay attention to the use of the Perfect Tense:

I have never been to Great Britain.

The scientist has already finished the experiment.

The doctor has not discharged the patient from the clinic yet.

My sister’s health hasn’t changed since she was discharged from the hospital.

Have you ever performed any operation?

The nurse has just determined the patient’s blood group.

The doctor has performed a lot of operations lately.

The patient has lost 3 kilograms of weight this month.

Exercise 6. Read and translate the text: