The ninth nuclear power plant of Russia was Bilibino NPP.The plant is located in the Chukchi autonomy and is comprised of four power units that operate as cogeneration plants to supply electrical power and heat for a large area. The plant thermal power is 62 MW, its total electrical power is 48 MW; 12 MW is the electrical power of one unit, whose reactor has 273 power channels. All four reactors are located in one building. Nuclear fuel of the Bilibino NPP is similar to that of the first plant's reactor. The uranium-graphite reactor is of cylindrical shape, 4,1 m in diameter and 3 m in height. The single-circuit cooling is used.
The first power unit was commissioned on 12 January, 1974, the second one - on 30 December, 1974, the third one - on 22 December, 1975, and the fourth one - on 27 December, 1976.
The tenth nuclear power plant of Russia was Kursk NPP.The plant is comprised of four RBMK-1 ООО power units, like the Leningrad NPP. Kursk-1 was put into operation on 19 December, 1Э7В, Kursk-2 - on 28 January, 1979, Kurs-3 - on 17 October, 1983, and Kursk-4 - on 2 December, 1985. The fifth improved-safety unit is being under construction.
The eleventh nuclear power plant of Russia was Smolensk NPP.There are three RBMH-1000 reactors at the site. The first unit was put into operation on December 9, 1982, the second one - on May 31, 1985, the third one - on January 17, 1990. The fourth unit with 1 500 MW output is 50 % completed.
The twelfth nuclear power plant of Russia was Kalinin NPP. The site has two VVER-1000 reactors, one is V-338 and another is V-320. The first unit was put into operation on May 9, 1984, and the second one - on December 3, 1986. Kalinin-3 is under construction (80 % completion).
The thirteenth nuclear power plant in Russia was Balakovo NPP.The site has four VVER-1000 reactors; all of them are of the V-320 design. This is the newest one among the Russian nuclear power plants. Balakovo-1 was put into operation on December 28, 1985, Balakovo-2 - on October 8, 1987, Balakovo-3 - on December 24, 1988, and Balakovo-4 - on May 15, 1994.
The fourteenth nuclear power plant of Russia was Volgodonsk NPP.There is one VVER-1000 reactor of the V-320 model at the site. It is the newest nuclear power plant of Russia. The first unit was commissioned March 30, 2001.
Reactor and nuclear plant designs were developed by Gidropress Institute (Podolsk), Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET, Moscow), Physical and Power Engineering Institute (Obninsk), GSPI-11 (St.-Petersburg) and two design institutes owned by Minenergo - Atomenergoproekt (Teploenergoproekt) along with its branches and Gidroproekt (Moscow); the design development, construction and operation of the plants were supervised by the State Nuclear Authority «Atomenergonadzor».
The total capacity of all operating nuclear power plants in Russia (except for the first NPP in Obninsk, Siberian NPP in Tomsk-7, plants at Krasnoyarsk- 26 and Dimitrovgrad) is 22 242 MW, i.e. 30 power units, including 14 WER- type power units (8 VVER-1000 units and В VVER-440 units), 15 uranium- graphite channel-type reactors (11 RBMK-1000 units and 4 EGP-6 units)and 1 BN-600 fast reactor.
The pressurized water reactors have 6 modifications (among them there are 4 first generation reactors, 5 second generation reactors and 5 third generation reactors). Among the channel-type reactors there are 8 first generation reactors, 6 second generation reactors and 1 reactor of third generation.
During the recent five years the share of the nuclear power industry in the total electricity production of Russia averaged at 12 %, in the central area of the country (including Moscow) - 25 %, in the North-West of the central area - 50 %, in the Kola peninsula - 70 %, in the Central Black soil area - 80 %, in the North-West of the Chukchi independent area - BO %, and 40 % of the supply of electricity exported by Russia.
The plan for activities on commissioning of new units for the period until 2005 aims at commissioning of Kalinin-3 and Kursk-5.
2 Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:
1) power unit;
2) cogeneration plant;
3) nuclear power plant;
4) the plant thermal power;
5) single-circuit cooling;
6) nuclear fuel;
7) the first power unit;
8) improved-safety unit;
9) nuclear plant design;
10) supply of electricity.
3 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
1) снабжать теплом;
2) введён в эксплуатацию;
3) действующая атомная станция;
4) атомная энергетика;
5) электроэнергия на экспорт;
6) пуск новых энергоблоков;
7) снабжать электричеством;
8) конструкция реактора;
9) производство энергии;
10) объём производства.
4 Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:
1) to cogenerate;
2) to build;
4) to construct;
5) to complete;
6) to operate;
5 Задайте к данному предложению все типы вопросов (общий, альтернативный, разделительный, специальный: а) к подлежащему, б) к второстепенному члену предложения).
The plant is located in the Chukchi autonomy and is comprised of four power units.
6 Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: формы и функции инфинитива, инфинитивные конструкции (сложное дополнение, подлежащее), существительное в роли определения, функции слов one (ones), that (those), условные предложения:
1) The plant is located in the Chukchi autonomy and is comprised of four power units that operate as cogeneration plants to supply electrical power and heat for a large area.
2) The first unit was put into operation on December 9, 1982, the second one - on May 31, 1985, the third one - on January 17, 1990.
3) The total capacity of all operating nuclear power plants in Russia is 22 242 MW.
4) Nuclear fuel of the Bilibino NPP is similar to that of the first plant's reactor.
5) The single-circuit cooling is used.
6) The fifth improved-safety unit is being under construction.
7) The design development, construction and operation of the plants were supervised by the State Nuclear Authority «Atomenergonadzor».
7 Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:
1) Where is the ninth nuclear power plant of Russia located?
2) How many power units is it comprised of?
3) What can you say about the tenth and the eleventh nuclear power plants of Russia?
4)Where are the twelfth and the thirteenth nuclear power plants of Russia located?
5) Which NPP is the newest nuclear power plant of Russia and where is it located?
6) When was the first unit of the plant commissioned?
7) What is the total capacity of all operating nuclear power plants in Russia?