2) что нужно/можно сделать, чтобы увеличить/усилить «customer loyalty».
5. Прочитайте текст В5 без словаря и найдите абзац, который дает определение рыночной экономики.
6. Объясните на основе текста B5, как вы понимаете слова «экономическое чудо» (economic miracle).
Text B5ECONOMIC ORDER, NOT CHAOS
Before people study the way the market works, they see only a jumble (беспорядочная смесь) of different firms and product. Few of us stop to wonder how it is that food is produced in suitable amounts, gets transported to the right place; and arrives in a palatable form at the dinner table. But a close look at market system is convincing proof that is does not produce chaos and anarchy. A market system contains an internal logic.
A market economy is an elaborate mechanism for the coordination of people, activities, and business through a system of prices and markets. It is a communication device for pooling the knowledge and actions of millions of diverse individuals. Without information or computation, it solves a problem that the largest supercomputer could not solve today, involving millions of unknown variables and relations. Nobody designed the market; yet it functions remarkably well.
History’s most dramatic example of the effectiveness of market economy came in West Germany after World War II. In 1947, production and consumption had dropped to a low level. Price controls1) and thorough government regulation hobbled2) markets. Money was worthless; factories closed down for lack of materials; trains could not run for lack of coal; coal could not be mined because miners were hungry; miners were hungry because peasants would not sell food for money and no goods were available for them to purchase in return. Markets were not functioning properly. People could not buy what they needed or sell what they produced at free–market prices.
Then in 1948, the government freed prices from controls and introduced a new currency3), quickly putting the market mechanism back into effective operation. Very quickly production and consumption; rapidly rose once again what, how, and for whom were being resolved by markets and prices. People called it “an economic miracle”, but the recovery was in fact largely the result of a smoothly running market mechanism.
The point to emphasize is that markets perform similar miracles around us all the time-if only we take care to observe our economy carefully. Moreover, history records that economic and political crises often occur when the market mechanism breaks down.
1) controls – зд. ограничения
2) to hobble – хромать, спотыкаться (напр. о характере развития экономики)
3) currency – валюта, деньги
Письменно переведите текст С5.
Text C5MARKET EQUILIBRIUM
At every moment, innumerable factors affect economic activity. Some people are buying while others are selling; firms are inventing new products while governments are passing laws to regulate pollution; foreigners are invading markets while domestic firms are moving their plants abroad. Yet in the midst of all this turmoil, markets are constantly solving the what, how, for whom.
As the markets balance all the forces operating on the economy, they are finding an equilibrium of supply and demand.
What is market equilibrium? It represents a balance among all the different buyers and sellers. Households and firms all want to buy or sell certain quantities depending upon the price that just balances the desires of buyers and sellers. Too high a price would mean a glut1) of goods with too much output; too low a price would produce long lines in stores and a deficiency of goods. Those prices for which buyers desire to buy exactly the quantity that sellers desire to sell yield an equilibrium of supply and demand.
1) glut – затоваривание (рынка); избыток
UNIT 6. WHAT IS HACCP?
Text A7WHAT IS HACCP
1. hazard (n, v) – опасность, риск, шанс; рисковать, осмеливаться
2. handle (n, v) – ручка, рукоятка; предлог, удобный случай; банк, выручка; обращаться с (чем–либо, кем–либо), ухаживать, трогать, касаться, управлять, регулировать, контролировать, обрабатывать, грузить, транспортировать, сортировать
3. to monitor – контролировать, следить, наставлять, советовать, проверять
4. to update – модернизировать, исправлять, обновлять
5. foodborne – перенесенный с пищей, полученный с (в) пищей, относящийся к пище
6. implement (n, v) – орудие, инструмент, средство; (pl.) утварь, инвентарь; выполнять, осуществлять, снабжать, обеспечивать
7. prerequisite (n, adj.) – предпосылка, предварительное условие; необходимый, требуемый заранее
8. facility–design practice – применение техники (оборудования)
9. National Aeronautics and Space Administration = NASA – Национальное управление по аэронавтике и исследованию космического пространства (НАСА, США).