I. Words and expressions for the text comprehension:
applied sciences –прикладні науки
natural sciences –природничі науки
marine engineer –морський інженер
stationary engineer–стаціонарний інженер
electronic circuits –електронні схеми
solidstate electronics –твердотільна електроніка
fiber optics –волоконна оптика
be concerned with –мати справу з
II. Read and translate the following international words:
Canal, material, mechanism, signal, locomotive, laser, revolution, method, optics, radar, radiation, ventilation.
III. Read and translate the text:
Engineering, term applied to the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied to the efficient use of the materials and forces of nature.
The term engineer properly denotes a person who has received professional training in pure and applied science, but is often loosely used to describe the operator of an engine, as in the terms locomotive engineer, marine engineer, or stationary engineer. In modern terminology these latter occupations are known as crafts or trades. Between the professional engineer and the craftsperson or tradesperson, however, are those individuals known as subprofessionals or paraprofessionals, who apply scientific and engineering skills to technical problems; typical of these are engineering aides, technicians, inspectors, draftsmen, and the like.
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
The largest and most diverse field of engineering, it is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field in the late 1980s are electric power and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solid state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and fiber optics.
Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and computers.
The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of systems for generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power. Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately. Another is the real-time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyze the data fed back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the system while it is in operation.
A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency of the current fed into them. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way.
Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration, and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. Information is now generated, transmitted, received, and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in history, and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue unabated.
Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks, such as amplifying electronic signals, adding binary numbers, and demodulating radio signals to recover the information they carry. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing, as in television, and for correcting errors in digital information, as in telecommunications.
Prior to the 1960s, circuits consisted of separate electronic devices – resistors, capacitors, inductors, and vacuum tubes – assembled on a chassis and connected by wires to form a bulky package. Since then, there has been a revolutionary trend toward integrating electronic devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semi-conductive material. The complex task of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology, including computers, electron-beam lithography, micro-manipulators, ion-beam implantation, and ultraclean environments. Much of the research in electronics is directed toward creating even smaller chips, faster switching of components, and three-dimensional integrated circuits.
I. Answer the following questions:
1. What is engineering?
2. How can you translate the word “engineering”?
3. Who is engineer?
4. What is the general aim of engineers?
5. What branch of engineering deals with such equipment as communication systems, computers, integrated circuits?
6. What is the field of electric power concerned with?
7. What do electronic engineers design?
II. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following:
Three-dimensional integrated circuits, electron-beam lithography, advanced technology, electronic devices, semi-conductive material, transmission, ability to transmit power, natural sciences, applied science, crafts, solid state electronics, power generation, the efficiency of the system, the frequency of the current, rate of growth, a bulky package.
III. Give English equivalents of the following:
Сили природи, професійна освіта (навчання), природничі науки, заняття (рід діяльності), застосувати інженерні навички, ефективність системи, мати справу з, галузь науки, цифрова інформація, виправляти помилки, напівпровідниковий матеріал, інтегровані схеми.
IV. Fill in the gaps with words given below: