Страдательные обороты с формальным подлежащим it

Обороты, состоящие из местоимения it и глагола в страдательном залоге – it is said, it was said, it is reported, it was reported, соответствуют в русском языке глаголам в 3-м лице множественного числа с неопределенно-личным значением: говорят, говорили, сообщаюти т.п. В таких оборотах it играет роль формального подлежащего и не имеет самостоятельного значения:

It is reported that the experiment has been carried out. Сообщают, что эксперимент проведен.  

В таких оборотах часто встречается сочетание модального глагола с инфинитивом страдательного залога: it can be said можно сказать, it should be mentioned следует упомянуть, it was to be expected надо было ожидать и т. п.

При наличии as со значением как перед оборотами такого типа it не употребляется: as is reported как сообщают, as was believed как полагали, as was to be expected как надо было ожидать.

В некоторых случаях опускается и глагол-связка to be: as shown in Table 3 как показано в таблице 3, as stated below как указано ниже, as mentioned above как упомянуто выше, as reported in the last issue как сообщалось в последнем номере журнала.

Сложноподчиненные предложения, в которых главное предложение выражено страдательным оборотом с it, часто заменяются предложениями с субъектным инфинитивным оборотом.

It is said that he knows English well. He is said to know English well. Говорят, что он хорошо знает английский язык.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Mark with a P those sentences which will go into the passive.
Model: Someone will pick you up at the station. P
1. Almost everyone enjoyed the lecture yesterday.  
2. Many scholars have translated that famous Greek epic.  
3. Today a large number of people speak English.  
4. They left early in the morning.  
5. The noise from the trains annoyed me terribly last night.  
6. I work till 9 every other day.  
7. It’s snowing.  
8. He borrowed the money from the bank two weeks ago.  
9. She’s coughing again.  
Exercise 2. Underline all the passives.

Energy from the sun reaches the Earth as heat. Some of this heat energy is subsequently radiated into space, while some of it is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and reflected back to Earth. This is a natural process, but in recent decades, human activities have led to an increase in the amount of gases in the atmosphere which is now trapping too much heat.

One of the main greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide which is released into the atmosphere as a result of burning fossil fuels as a source of energy in power stations, factories and homes. Exhaust gases from cars and lorries have resulted in further emissions of carbon dioxide.

Exercise 3. Supply the passive forms with by + agent where necessary.
1. 1 When Jasper Morgan died his collection of pictures ____ (sell) to raise enough money to pay his taxes. Tremendous interest in the sale ____ (show/the general public).
2. The music that ____ (compose/Beethoven) towards the end of his life is very different from his early music. The music ____ (write) in extremely difficult conditions.
3. Many beautiful old buildings in cities ____ (replace/modern ones). If this replacement ____ (not control), it isn’t very long before a city loses its character.
Exercise 4. Underline phrases which are not necessary in these sentences. Not all sentences contain unnecessary phrases.
1. All her valuable jewelry has been stolen late at night by somebody.
2. Our homework is corrected by our teacher.
3. Flight 202 from France has been delayed by bad weather.
4. The cocktails are being served by a waiter.
5. They were shown round the city by a guide.
6. The repair work was done by the mechanic.
7. That car was checked by the inspector.
8. The report hasn’t been examined by a committee of experts yet.
Exercise 5. Turn these sentences into passive. Keep them in the same tense and remove they, we, someone, etc.
Model: We clean rooms carefully every day. Rooms are cleaned carefully every day.
1. Someone has given her a beautiful ring.
2. We check every machine-tool thoroughly.
3. We export our equipment to many foreign countries.
4. They have cancelled the order.
5. We closed the shop at 10 o’clock.
6. They have constructed two buildings.
7. We have invited all our friends to the party.
8. We have told them not to be late tomorrow.
9. They promised me a lot of money for the project.
10. Fortunately, they didn’t do any damage to the new device.
Exercise 6. Complete each sentence with a passive verb.
Model: The Prime minister signed the agreement. The agreement was signed by the Prime minister.
1. Millions of people enjoy the game. The game __________.
2. They will finish the report in two weeks. The report __________.
3. They have just completed the project. The project __________.
4. The president has announced the news. The news __________.
5. They are building a hotel in the city center. The hotel __________.
6. The police in New York arrested three robbers.
7. Three robbers __________.
8. They are painting the flat now. The flat __________.
9. The government hasn’t changed the regulation yet. The regulation __________.
10. They are rebuilding the damaged building. The damaged building __________.
11. They have opened the sports center. The sports center __________.
12. A criminal stole my purse. My purse __________.
13. Arsenal won the cup last year. The cup __________.
14. Someone will meet you at the airport. You __________.
Exercise 7. Rewrite these sentences in the passive. Omit the agent where it can be omitted.
Model: Visitors mustn’t feed the animals. The animals mustn’t be fed by visitors.
1. We had warned him the day before not to go to the forest alone.
2. They were examining the motor when the accident happened.
3. You must clean the microwave oven every time you use it.
4. You should water the flowers in a hot day.
5. They are repairing the roof at the moment.
6. Someone will drive your van to Cardiff on Tuesday.
7. We don’t allow smoking at the office.
8. We expect students not to consult any textbooks at the examination.
Exercise 8. Put in the correct forms, active or passive, the verbs in brackets.

How the other half lives?

Lord Manners was a rich and a famous banker. When he (die) died recently, he 1.____ (give) a magnificent funeral which 2.____ (attend) by hundreds of famous people. The funeral was going to 3.____ (hold) in Westminster Abbey. Many ordinary people 4.____ (line) the streets to watch the procession. The wonderful black and gold carriage 5.____ (draw) by six black horses. The mourners 6.____ (follow) in silence. Lord Manners 7.____ (give) a royal farewell. Two tramps were among the crowd. They 8.____ (watch) the procession with amazement. As solemn music 9.____ (could hear) in the distance, one of them 10.____ (turn) to the other and 11.____ (whisper) in admiration. “Now that’s what I call really living!”

Exercise 9. Begin these sentences with it, there or a name/a noun + passive construction.
Model: It is expected that inflation level will rise again this month. (expect)
1. __________ that some of the passengers had died in the fire. (fear)
2. __________ to be an expert in information technologies. (suppose)
3. __________ to have committed the crime. (think)
4. __________ that much attention will be paid to that problem. (think)
5. __________ to be promoted next month. (believe)
6. __________ to be honest and responsible. (consider)
7. __________ that lots of people are waiting to renew their driving licenses. (say)
8. __________ that new jobs will be created in the computer industry. (say)
9. __________to be a decrease in prices by 15 percent but I haven’t noticed any. (suppose)
Exercise 10. Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence.
Model: Many pets are losing every year. Many pets are lost every year.
1. The child has been taken to hospital.
2. A new bridge is be built across the river.
3. All the food for the picnic was supply.
4. No decision will being taken before next Monday.
5. The program is shown every Saturday evening.
6. The burglar unlocked the door by a false key.
7. This article was writing by a famous scientist.
Exercise 11. Make up dialogues by analogy.
1. A: What is this amazing building made of? B: It’s made of stone and glass.
2. A: What subjects are taught at your University? B: Technical sciences are mainly taught here.
3. A: What is produced at this plant? B: Lorries and trucks.
4. A: She is called Beth? What’s her full name? B: It’s Elizabeth.
Exercise 12. Deny these facts.
1. The project can be done in a month.
2. This room has been freshly painted.
3. When the boss came, all the letters had been typed.
4. These facts are well-known.
5. The company was founded in 2002.
6. When they arrived, the dinner was being served.
7. The meeting will be held on Tuesday.
8. The proposal is being discussed at the moment.
Exercise 13. Speak about these people or things in the past and in the future.
Model: They are invited to the party. They were invited to the party. They will be invited to the party.
1. The e-mail is received in the morning.
2. The problem is considered by the scientists.
3. Many books are sold on the Internet.
4. She is often laughed at.
5. His report is translated into many languages.
6. The patient is being examined now.
7. The agreement is being worked out.
Exercise 14. Reproduce the following dialogues using the given words.
1. A: Were you received by Mr. Blake? B: Yes. But I was kept waiting for 20 minutes. Prompts: the dean, the chief, the professor, the lawyer.
2. A: Let’s drop in at the electronic library. B: I’m afraid we won’t be let in. A: Why? B: Because it’s closing time already. Prompts: department store, bank, art gallery, internet-café.
3. A: The translation can’t be done on time although we have tried hard. B: Never mind the time. Quality is of primary importance. Prompts: the application, the project, the work, the research.
4. A: When must the paper be returned to you? B: It must be returned in 3 days. Prompts: in 2 weeks, in a month, as soon as it’s ready, any time you like.
Exercise 15. Act out a conversation, using the passive forms.
Uncle: In one word, when are you going to pay your debts?
Nephew: Oh, presently, dear uncle. I will do it as soon as I receive the money which will be paid by the publisher if my novel is accepted.
Uncle: Do you think it will be accepted, young man?
Nephew: No doubt, it will. I’m going to send it as soon as the work is finished which I will begin the moment I have found a suitable subject and necessary inspiration.
Exercise 17. Develop the suggested situations giving your opinion as in the model.
Model: A: People are pleased when they are given presents. B: I think people are pleased when they are given presents because they are given attention and most of them like it. C: To my mind some people may get annoyed because they feel obliged.
1. People are troubled when they are accused of something.
2. People are satisfied when they are given exact answers.
3. People are confused when they are interrupted.
4. People are pleased when they are paid compliments.
5. People are flattered when they are praised.
Exercise 18. Exchange your expressions of a visit to London paying special attention to its architecture. Work in groups of three. Make use of the following questions.
1. When was St. Paul’s Cathedral (the Tower of London, the British museum, the Tate Gallery, etc.) built?
2. Who was it designed by? When was its construction completed?
3. What new buildings have been built recently? What new buildings are being built now?
4. What building were you most impressed by?
5. What museums, monuments, parks were you amazed by?
Exercise 19. Express your opinion on the following statements.
1. Nobody can deny that where there’s a will, there’s a way.
2. Some people think that the designer clothes are the best.
3. People admit that it is never too late to learn.
4. People too often say that tastes differ.
5. Nobody argues that actions speak louder than words.
6. Everyone quite rightly thinks that a man is known by the company he keeps.
7. People believe that he laughs best who laughs last.
8. People agree that exception proves the rule.
Exercise 20. Use the following proverbs in short situations.
1. A tree is known by its fruit.
2. Lost time is never found again.
3. Rome was not built in a day.
4. Ask no questions and you will be told no lies.
5. What is done cannot be undone.

Литература

1. John Eastwood. Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate with answers / J. Eastwood. – Oxford University Press, 2006. – 434 с.

2. Helen Naylor with Raymond Murphy. Essential Grammar in Use. Supplementary Exercises with answers / Cambridge University Press, 2001. – 113 с.

3. A. J. Thomson, A. V. Martinet. A Practical English Grammar / A. J. Thomson – Oxford University Press, 1986. – 385 p.


Оглавление

Предисловие. 3

Имя существительное (The Noun) 4

Артикль (The Article) 19

Местоимение (The Pronoun) 29

Глагол (The Verb) 46

Залог (The Voice) 49

Действительный залог (The Active Voice) 49

Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice) 120

Литература. 120


Св. план 2011, поз. 16

Учебное издание

Илюкевич Ираида Игоревна

Левкович Татьяна Викторовна

Маликова Ирина Гаврииловна и др.