All the objects and phenomena of reality are in space and occur in time. Therefore, the perception of spatial and temporal relationships between objects is a necessary part of any process vospriyatiya.V some cases they take on a special significance, and then these relations themselves become the object of perception.
In the perception of space are distinguished: 1) the perception of extended properties of objects - their shape, size, volume, and 2) the perception of distance between objects - their position, or place among the other objects and their distance from the observer (depth perception).
Perception of size and shape objects. The perception of the size and shape of objects is a complex process in which immediate visual sensations are organically linked to the musculo-skeletal and tactile perceptions left over from previous experience.
The basis of this perception are the size and shape of objectively existing objects whose images are obtained on the retina. However, the mere sight can not provide the correct perception of the shape of objects.
The perception of three-dimensional objects. The main role in the perception of three-dimensionality plays binocular vision (vision with two eyes). With this vision, we obtain two images on the retina of one eye and the other. These images are not exactly the same: the image of the object on the retina of the left eye it reflects more on the left side, while on the retina of the right eye is more reflected right side of the subject. This is easily seen when viewed alternately right and left eyes of some bulky items (eg, a book), located at a distance of 30-40 cm from the eye. With simultaneous vision with two eyes of the subject corresponding excitation from the right and left eyes are integrated into the cortical areas of the visual analyzer and give the impression of three-dimensionality of the perceived object.
The perception of depth. Depth perception is due to the proximity or remoteness of the assessment items. It is carried out with the help of both binocular and monocular vision. Distance to the object