Passive voice

We must learn to use the Passive.

The Passive must be learned and used.

The wind shook the house.

The house was shaken.

We took what we could,

But not everything was taken.

Some men brought boats.

When the boats were brought,

They went to buy clothing.

The clothing was bought.

We found all the children.

The children were found.

But the wind threw the house down;

It was thrown to the ground.

We built a new house,

It was built too fast to tell.

We did the work together;

It was done very well.

We finished the work

On Saturday morning;

And when it was finished,

We rested.

Формы страдательного залога (Passive Voice) употребляются:

I. Когда в центре внимания говорящего находится лицо или предмет, которые подвергаются действию, а не лицо или предмет, которые совершают действие.

II. Когда лицо, совершающее действие, несущест­венно, неизвестно или не упоминается по каким-либо причинам.

III. В тех случаях, когда лицо, совершающее дейст­вие, не упоминается, так как это не существенно, не нужно, часто указывается на то, где, когда или как происходит действие.

(Where?) English is spoken all over the world.

(When?) Football and hockey are played all theyear round.

(How?) Fish is not eaten with a knife.

IV. Лицо, свершающее действие указывается дополнением с предлогом by: by the teacher, by the pupils, by the carpenter.Инструмент, при помощи которого дейстие совершается, указывается дополнением с предлогом with: with a knife, with a hammer.

V. Формы страдательного залога образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в соответ­ствующем времени и третьей формы смыслового глагола be + V3Ved

Cуществует 10 видо-временных форм в страдательном залоге:

1. Present Simple Passive am/is/are + V3Ved I am taken to the theatre every month.

The room is cleaned every day.

Books are read by children and grown-ups.

2. Past Simple Passive was/were + V3Ved The book was written by A.S.Pushkin.

The flowers were bought yesterday.

3. Future Simple Passive shall/will be + V3Ved We shall be given fruit tomorrow.

The letters will be sent next week.

4. Future-in-the Past should/would be + V3Ved They said that the letters would be sent the

Simple Passive next day.

5. Present Perfect Passive have/has been + V3Ved The desks have already been painted.

The composition has just been written.

6. Past Perfect Passive had been + V3Ved The room had been cleaned before Mother

came home.

7. Future Perfect Passive shall/will have been The work will have been done by 5 o’clock

+ V3Ved tomorrow.

8. Future-in-the Past should/would have They promised that the work would have

Perfect Passive been + V3Ved been done by 5 o’clock the next day.

9. Present Continuous am/is/are being + The room is being cleaned now.

Passive V3Ved

10. Past Continuous was/were being + The trees were being planted when we were Passive V3Ved walking in the park.

VI. В английском языке есть группа глаголов (to give, to allow, to show, to tell, to offer),после которых возможно употребление и прямого, и косвенного дополнения (Mother gave Tom an apple).Хотя эти глаголы могут употребляться в двух страдатель­ных оборотах ( 1) Tom was givenan apple. 2) An apple was givento Tom), первый вари­ант оказывается более предпочтительным.

I was offeredan interesting job. Nick was allowedto go there. We were toldabout it yesterday.

VII. Следует обратить внимание на употребление в страдательном залоге глаголов, которые часто используются с предлогами - to laugh at, to speak to (about), to listen to, to send for,etc.

He ismuch spoken about. –О нем много говорят.

They arenever listened to. –Их никогда не слушают.

The doctorhas been sent for. -За доктором послали.

VIII. Match the two parts of these sentences to make well-known proverbs and sayings and find their Russian equivalents in the box. bbbbboxbbbbbbbbbbbbbox     boxboxbox.

1. Marriages are made a) cannot be undone.

2. Easily earned money b) than badly taught.

3. The devil is not so black c) is quickly spent.

4. Things done d) as he is painted.

5. Better untaught e) in heaven.

1. Браки совершаются на небесах.

2. Недоученный хуже неученого.

3. Не так страшен черт, как его малюют.

4. После драки кулаками не машут.

5. Что легко наживается, легко и проживается.

IX Read the English proverbs and find the Russian equivalents:

1. What is done cannot be undone. Дерево познается по плоду.

2. A tree is known by its fruit. Что сделано, того не воро­тишь.

3. Lost time is never found again. Потерянного времени никогда не воротишь.

4. Rome was not built in a day. He сразу Москва строилась.

5. Don't count your chickens before Кто раз соврет, тому в другой раз не поверят.

they are hatched. Цыплят по осени считают.

6. Never fry a fish till it is caught. He дели шкуру неубитого медведя.

7. A liar is not believed when he speaks the truth.