1.The problems to be studied are of great importance. 2. The problem studied helped us understand many things. 3. To study the problem we must make some experiments. 4. To study the problem means to give answers to many questions. 5. Having studied the problem we could answer many questions. 6. The problem studied is unlikely to be of great interest. 7. Scientists studying the problem made a lot of experiments to get answers to the required questions. 8. The problem to have been studied last year will not help us to solve our task now. 9. Having been well prepared for the examination the pupils could answer all the questions the teacher asked them. 10. The problem to be discussed at the meeting requires careful consideration.
159 Итоговый тест
4. Выполните перевод грамматикализованных предложе
I. I. Accuracy is one of the major items in judging a control
system. The higher the accuracy of the system, the less errors
the system makes. 2. The digital computer employs the princi
ple of counting units, digits, and hence, if properly guided, gives
answers which have a high degree of accuracy. 3. Electronic
computers can choose which of several different operations are
the right ones to make in given circumstances. Never before has
mankind had such a powerful tool available. 4. In many cases
man has proved to be but an imperfect controller of the ma
chines he has created. Thus, it is natural, that wherever neces
sary, we should try to replace the human controller by some form
of automatic controller. 5. It is necessary to draw a distinction
between calculating machines and computers, the former requir
ing manual control for each arithmetic step and the latter hav
ing the power to solve a complete problem automatically.
II. 1. Many servomechanisms and regulators are known to
be composed of a number of control elements connected in se
ries, the output of one being used as the input to the next. 2.
Vfe expect a computer to work for at least several hours without
a fault; that is to say, supposing a speed of one thousand opera
tions per second, to perform more than ten million operations.
3. Digital programming implies the preparation of a problem for
a digital computer by putting it in a form which the computer
can understand and then entering this program into the com
puter storage unit. A problem to be solved by a digital comput
er must be expressed in mathematical terms that the computer
can work with. 4. Among all forms of magnetic storage, mag
netic tapes were the first to be proposed in connection with dig
ital computers. 5. Programming a computer involves analysing
the problem to be solved and a plan to solve it.
5. Прочтите тексты (по вариантам) и составьте короткую
аннотацию на каждый из них.
1. The WORLD-WIDE WEB
People have dreamt of a universal information database since late nineteen forties. In this database, not only would the data be accessible to people around the world, but it would also easily link to other pieces of information, so that only the most
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 160
important data would be quickly found by a user. Only recently the new technologies have made such systems possible. The most popular system currently in use is the World-Wide Web (WWW) which began in March 1989. The Web is an Internet-based computer network that allows users on one computer to access information stored on another through the world-wide network.
As the popularity of the Internet increases, people become more aware of its colossal potential. The World-Wide Web is a product of the continuous search for innovative ways of sharing information resources. The WWW project is based on the principle of universal readership; "if information is available, then any person should be able to access it from anywhere in the world." The Web's implementation follows a standard client-server model. In this model, a user relies on a program (the client) to connect to a remote machine (the server), where the data is stored. The architecture of the WWW is the one of clients, such as Netscape, Mosaic, or Lynx, "which know how to present data but not what its origin is, and servers, which know how to extract data", but are ignorant of how it will be presented to the user.
One of the main features of the WWW documents is their hypertext structure. On a graphic terminal, for instance, a particular reference can be represented by underlined text, or an icon. "The user clicks on it with the mouse, and the referenced document appears." This method makes copying of information unnecessary: data needs only to be stored once, and all referenced to it can be linked to the original document.
2. SUCCESS of the WWW
Set off in 1989, the WWW quickly gained great popularity among Internet users. What is the reason for the immense success of the Wbrld-Wide Wfeb? Perhaps, it can be explained by CERN's* attitude towards the development of the project. As soon as the basic outline of the WWW was complete, CERN made the source code for its software publicly available. CERN has been encouraging collaboration by academic and commercial parties since the onset of the project, and by doing so it got millions of people involved in the growth of the Wfeb.
The system requirements for running a WWW server are minimal, so even administrators with limited funds had a chance
to become information providers. Because of the intuitive nature of hypertext, many inexperienced computer users were able to connect to the network. Furthermore, the simplicity of the Hyper Text Markup Language, used for creating interactive documents, allowed these users to contribute to the expanding database of documents on the Web. Also, the nature of the World-Wide Web provided a way to interconnect computers running different operating systems, and display information created in a variety of existing media formats.
In short, the possibilities for hypertext in the world-wide environment are endless. With the computer industry growing at today's pace, no one knows what awaits us in the 21st century.
* CERN was originally named after its founding body the 'Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire,' and is now called 'European Laboratory for Particle Physics*.