The first Old English written records are considered to be the runic inscriptions.To make these inscriptions people used the Runes/the Runic Alphabet – the first original Germanic Alphabet.
· appeared in the 3rd – 4th c. A.D.;
· it was also called Futhark (after the first 6 letters of this alphabet);
· the word “rune” meant “secret, mystery” and was used to denote magic inscriptions on objects made of wood, stone, metal;
· each symbol indicated a separate sound (one symbol = one sound);
· the symbols were angular due to the fact that they had to be carved on hard materials;
· the number of symbols: GB – 28-33; on the continent – 16-24).
See the copy of the alphabet (additional information)
Best known Runic Inscriptions:
1. Franks Casket – a box with 4 sides made of whale bone, each side contained a picture in the centre and runic inscriptions around the picture that told the story of the whale bone in alliterative verse.
2. Ruthwell Cross –was found near thevillage of Ruthwell, Dumfriesshire, it is a 15 feet tall stone cross ornamented in all sides with runic inscriptions that are actually a passage from a religious poem “The Dream of the Rood”.
Old English Alphabet
The Old English Alphabet was borrowed from Latin, but there were also some letters that were borrowed from the Runic Alphabet:
· ? (“thorn”) = [q] and [ð]
· ? (“wynn”) = [w]
· ? (“mann”) = stood for OE word “man”
· ? (“dæζ”) = stood for OE word “day”
Some new letters were introduced:
· ζ = [g] and [j];
· ð/þ/Đ/đ = [q] and [ð];
· æ = a ligature of [a] and [e];
· œ = a ligature of [o] and [e].
Rules of Reading:
They resemble the modern rules, with several exceptions though:
1.f = [v] --- 1. between vowels;
s = [z] 2. between a vowel and a voiced consonant ( [r, m, n, l, d, etc.] ).
ð/þ = [ð]
2.ζ – [j] – between and after front vowels ( [e, i, æ] );
– [g] – initially and between back vowels ( [a, o, u] ).
3.cζ = [gg].
4.c = [k].
5.n = [ŋ] when fallowed by [k] or [g].
See also § 111-113 on p. 71-74 in “История английского языка” by Т.А. Расторгуева (copies).
Old English Manuscripts
Most of the Old English manuscripts were written in Latin characters. The Latin Alphabet was modified by the scribes to suit the English language (some letters were changed and some new letters were added (see examples above)). The Old English manuscripts that give us the examples of the language of that period are:
· personal documents containing names and place names;
· legal documents (charters);
· glosses to the Gospels and other religious texts (Latin-English vocabularies for those who did not know Latin good enough to understand the texts);
· textual insertions (pieces of poetry).
See § 110, p. 69-70 in “История английского языка” by Т.А. Расторгуева (a table “Principal Old English Written Records” (copies)).
Old English Poetry
1.Among the earliest textual insertions in Old English are the peaces of Old English poetry. They are to be found in “The Ecclesiastical History of the English People” written in Latin in the 8th c. by Bede the Venerable, an English monk. These two pieces are:
· 5 lines know as “Bede’s Death Song”;
· 9 lines of a religious poem “Cædmon’s Hymn”.
2.All in all we have about 30 000 lines of OE verse from many poets, but most of them are unknown or anonimuos. The two best known Old English poets are Cædmon and Cynewulf (Northumbrian authors).
3.The topics of Old English poetry:
· heroic epic(“Beowulf”, the oldest in the Germanic literature, 7th c., was written in Mercian or Northumbrian but has come down to us only in a 10th c. West Saxon copy. It is based on old legends about the tribal life of the ancient Teutons and features the adventures and fights of the legendary heroes);
· lyrical poems(“The Wanderer”, “The Seafarer”, etc. Most of the poems are ascribed to Cynewulf);
· religious poems(“Fate of the Apostles” (probably Cædmon), “Dream of the Rood”, etc.).
4.The peculiarities of Old English poetry:
· written in Old Germanic alliterative verse:
- the lines are not rhymed;
- the number of the syllables in a line is free;
- the number of stressed syllables in a line is fixes;
- the line is usually divided into 2 halves, each half starts with one and the same
sound; this sound may be repeated also in the middle of each half
(As an example see an abstract from “Beowulf” on p. 8 in “A Reader in the History of English” by Е.К. Щука.)
· a great number of synonyms (e.g. beorn, secζ, ζuma, wer were all the synonyms of “man”) and metaphorical phrases or compounds describing the qualities or functions of a thing (e.g. hronrād “whale-road” (for “sea”); bānhūs “bone-house” (for “a person’s body”); hēaþu-swāt “war-sweat” (for “blood”)).
1. § 108, p. 67-68 in “История английского языка” by Т.А. Расторгуева (examination question) (copies).
2. § 110, p. 69-70 in “История английского языка” by Т.А. Расторгуева (a table “Principal Old English Written Records”) (copies)
2. Read the lecture and § 111-113 on p. 71-74 in “История английского языка” by Т.А. Расторгуева (copies).
3. Using your knowledge of the Old English Alphabet and the rules of reading read an abstract from “Beowulf” on p. 8 in “A Reader in the History of English” by Е.К. Щука and try to identify the features/peculiarities of Old English poetry in it (copies).