The circulatory (cardiovascular) system

Unit 4

The circulatory (cardiovascular) system

I. Pre-reading

Follow the link, listen and do the tasks:

https://cloud.mail.ru/public/KXUb/tryrKBkCN

Learn the vocabulary

The circulatory (cardiovascular) system - №2 - открытая онлайн библиотека

II.Focus on vocabulary

Match the terms.

Камера, правые отделы сердца, левые отделы сердца, кислород, обогащать кислородом, питательные вещества (питание), сеть, ответвление, обогащать питательными веществами, мелкий, делить, подразделять, односторонний клапан, арка.

arch, the right heart, chamber, oxygen, divide, the left heart, nourish, oxygenate, nourishment, branch, network, fine, subdivide, one-way valve.

Match the terms to their definitions.

1.circulatory system /ˌsɜː.kjəˈleɪtəri/ /ˈsɝː.kjə.lə.tɔːr.i/ /sɝː.kjə.lə.ˈtɔːr.i/ a. a very thin tube, especially one of the smaller tubes that carry blood around the body
2.tricuspid valve /traɪˈkʌs.pɪd ˌvælv/ b.the main artery (= thick tube carrying blood from the heart) that takes blood to the other parts of the body
3.vena cava/ˌviː.nə ˈkeɪ.və/ c.one of the thick tubes that carry blood from the heart to other parts of the body.
4.artery /ˈɑː.tər.i/ d.one of the two spaces in the top part of the heart that receive blood from the veins and push it down into the ventricles (= lower spaces)
5.mitral valve /ˈmaɪ.trəl ˌvælv/ e.a tube that carries blood to the heart from the other parts of the body
6.aorta /eɪˈɔː.tə/ f.the valve (= a structure that opens and closes) in the heart that stops blood from returning into the left atrium (= upper space) from the left ventricle (= lower space)
7.atrium/ˈeɪ.tri.əm/ g.the valve having a semilunar shape that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps
8.pulmonary valve h.either of two small, hollow spaces, one in each side of the heart, that force blood into the tubes leading from the heart to the other parts of the body
9.aortic valve disease i.between the ventricles (= hollow spaces in the heart that pump blood)
10.ventricle /ˈven.trɪ.kəl/ j.a thin part dividing tissues or spaces in an organ such as the nose or heart
11.interventricular /ˌɪn.tə.venˈtrɪk.jə.lər/ k.a very small vein
12.septum /ˈsep.təm/ l.a condition in which the valve between the heart and the aorta (= the body's largest artery) does not work properly
13.venule /ˈviːnjuːl/ m. the red liquid that is sent around the body by the heart, and carries oxygen and important substances to organs and tissue, and removes waste products
14.blood n.the valve (= the structure that opens and closes) in the heart that stops blood from returning into the right atrium (= upper space) from the right ventricle (= lower space)
15.vein o.one of the two very large veins through which blood returns to the heart, one from the upper body and head and one from all of the body below the chest
16.capillary /kəˈpɪl.ər.i/ p.a tube that carries liquids such as blood through the body
17.vessel q.a very small artery that often joins onto a capillary
18.arteriole /ɑːˈtɪə.ri.əʊl/ r.the system that moves blood through the body and that includes the heart, arteries, and veins

III. Reading

Read and translate the text.

The Circulatory System

1. The cardiovascular system is the system of blood circulation. By the cardiovascular system we mean the heart, the arteries, the veins and the capillaries of the human body.

2. The centre of the circulatory system is the heart. The human heart is a cone-shaped organ, about 5 inches1 long and 3 1/2 inches broad. It weighs about 10 ounces2 in the adult male, 6 ounces in the female. It lies in the thoracic cavity, just behind the breastbone and between the lungs. The heart is a hollow muscle which has four chambers. The right heart consists of an upper chamber, the atrium or the auricle and a lower chamber, the ventricle. Between these two chambers is a one-way valve, the tricuspid valve. The left heart has two chambers, but the valve that separates its chambers we call the mitral valve. Although the heart is a unit, anatomically and functionally, we may think of it as of two pumps - the «right heart» and the «left heart». The right heart receives blood from the veins and pumps it into the lungs by way of the lesser circulatory system. In the lungs the blood receives oxygen. Then it moves into the left heart. From the left heart the well-oxygenated blood moves into a large artery, the aorta. The blood returns to the heart by means of the veins. The walls of the capillaries are so thin that the dissolved nourishment that has come from the digestive system and the oxygen that has come from the lungs can pass through them into the tissues of the body and so nourish it. The capillaries form a close network all over the body. They gradually join together and get larger, and become veins.

3. Blood vessels that receive blood from the ventricle and lead it away from the heart and towards other organs are arteries («air duct» - Greek). The vessels received this name because the early anatomists assumed that they had been empty in dead persons and had carried air.The artery that takes up the blood from the right ventricle and carries it to the lungs is the pulmonary artery («lungs» - Latin). The pulmonary artery divides in two - one branch leads to the right lung, the other - to the left. The arteries continue to divide and subdivide and form smaller and smaller vessels with thinner and thinner walls. The smallest arteries are the arterioles and these finally divide into capillaries («hairlike» - Latin). We name them so because of their fineness, though actually they are much finer than hairs.

4. Gradually the capillaries begin to join into larger vessels. Such larger blood vessels that carry blood to the heart from the organs are the veins. The smallest of these are the venules.

5. The particular vein into which the capillaries and venules of the lungs finally unite is the pulmonary vein. The pulmonary vein carries the freshly oxygenated blood to the left auricle. The pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein make up the pulmonary circulation.

6. The contraction of the left ventricle forces the blood through a one-way valve into the aorta («to lift up» - Greek). The aorta is the largest artery in the body. It moves upward at first (the ascending aorta), but then arches over dorsally (the arch of the aorta). In its downward course, the aorta passes through the diaphragm.

 

7. The blood is a red fluid, which coagulates when escapes from a blood vessel. It consists of a colourless fluid, plasma or serum, and many millions of minute bodies, the corpuscles.

Notes

1. inch ( сокр . in.) = 2.54 cm (centimetres) 2. ounce ( сокр . oz.) = 28.33 g (grammes)

IV. Listening comprehension

The cardiovascular system

1.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_lgd03h3te8                      (00.00-05.40)

1.What is circulatory system?

2.What are its three main components?

3.What is the main function of the heart?

4.What are two main circulatory pathways( circulatory circuits)?

5.Which part of the heart pushes the blood to the pulmonary pathway (circuit) so it can be oxygenated?

6.Where does the left side of the heart pump the oxygenated blood?

7.Via which circulatory pathway is the blood then returned to the heart?

8.What are the left and the right sides of the human heart divided by?

9.Is the heart voluntary or involuntary muscle?

10.What does the human heart look like? Name its main parts.

11.What three layers of tissues is the human heart made up of?

12.What is the function of blood vessels?

13.Where does the blood flow through the arterial blood vessels?

14.What is the largest of the arteries?

15.What are arteries subdivided into?

16.What are arterioles?

17.What is the function of the capillaries?

18.How does the blood flow back from the body to the heart?

19.How do we call the largest veins in the body?

20.What is blood?

21.What is plasma mainly made up of?

22.What are the main corpuscular elements found in the blood ?

How the human heart works

2.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H04d3rJCLCE                              (00.00-01.58)

1.What is the most important muscle in the human body?

2.How many times a day can a human heart beat?

3.What are its four main chambers?

4.What kind of blood does the right part of heart receive?

5.Which artery does the right part of the heart pump the blood through?

6.Where does the blood from this artery go to?

7.What kind of blood does the left part of the heart receive?

8.What does the left part of the heart pump the blood through?

9.Where does the blood go from there?

10.What does blood deliver to tissues through capillaries while circulating through the body?

11.What does the blood pick up from tissues?

12. Where do veins return the de-oxygenated blood?

13.What happens next?

14.What is a valve?

15.How many valves does the heart have?

16.What are these valves made up of?

17. How do these work?

18.What is opening and closing of the valves controlled by?

19.Where is the tricuspid valve positioned?

20.Where is the pulmonic valve located? What is its function?

21.Where is the mitral valve positioned?

22. What is the aortic valve?

V. Speaking

VI. Research

Examine  different types of heart disease.

Follow the plan:

Causes>symptoms>effects>prevention.

TEST

Fill in the gaps.

The circulatory (cardiovascular) system - №3 - открытая онлайн библиотека

Retell the text in English.


Translate into English .

Система Кровообращения

Кровообращение происходит по двум основным путям, называемым кругами, соединёнными в последовательную цепочку: малому и большому кругу кровообращения. По малому кругу кровь циркулирует через лёгкие. Движение крови по этому кругу начинается с сокращения правого предсердия, после чего кровь поступает в правый желудочек сердца, сокращение которого толкает кровь в лёгочный ствол. Циркуляция крови в этом направлении регулируется предсердно-желудочковой перегородкой и двумя клапанами: трёхстворчатым (между правым предсердием и правым желудочком), предотвращающим возврат крови в предсердие, и клапаном лёгочной артерии, предотвращающим возврат крови из лёгочного ствола в правый желудочек. Лёгочной ствол разветвляется до сети лёгочных капилляров, где кровь насыщается кислородом за счёт вентиляции лёгких. Затем кровь через лёгочные вены возвращается из лёгких в левое предсердие. Большой круг кровообращения снабжает насыщенной кислородом кровью органы и ткани. Левое предсердие сокращается одновременно с правым и толкает кровь в левый желудочек. Из левого желудочка кровь поступает в аорту. Аорта разветвляется на артерии и артериолы, идущие в различные части организма и заканчивающиеся капиллярной сетью в органах и тканях. Циркуляция крови в этом направлении регулируется предсердно-желудочковой перегородкой, двустворчатым (митральным) клапаном и клапаном аорты. Таким образом, кровь движется по большому кругу кровообращения от левого желудочка до правого предсердия, а затем по малому кругу кровообращения от правого желудочка до левого предсердия.

Unit 4

The circulatory (cardiovascular) system

I. Pre-reading

Follow the link, listen and do the tasks:

https://cloud.mail.ru/public/KXUb/tryrKBkCN

Learn the vocabulary

The circulatory (cardiovascular) system - №2 - открытая онлайн библиотека

II.Focus on vocabulary

Match the terms.

Камера, правые отделы сердца, левые отделы сердца, кислород, обогащать кислородом, питательные вещества (питание), сеть, ответвление, обогащать питательными веществами, мелкий, делить, подразделять, односторонний клапан, арка.

arch, the right heart, chamber, oxygen, divide, the left heart, nourish, oxygenate, nourishment, branch, network, fine, subdivide, one-way valve.