In the surgical department

You already know much about our family. Now I want to tell you about my father. My father is a doctor. He is a surgeon. He works at a large hospital in the surgical department. He works very hard. When he comes to the hospital he goes to his wards to examine his patients. He asks the ward nurse about the postoperative reactions. And sometimes she tells the doctor that the temperature of some of the postoperative patients is rather high and some of them have a swelling. The surgeon gives necessary instruction to the nurse and goes to the operation room. He operates three days a week. I had my practice at the hospital where my father works and I learnt very much there.

The work at the surgical department is rather difficult but very interesting. I learnt much about surgical nursing, about the dressing of wounds and about the duties of a surgical nurse.

Лексика к тексту:

surgical department – хирургическое отделение

postoperative – послеоперационный

reactions – осложнения

swelling – воспаление

operating – room – операционная

dressing – повязка

wound – рана

duty – обязанность

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 10 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Infectious diseases

As you know I am a nurse at the therapeutic hospital. My children had many infectious diseases in the childhood. I know that infectious diseases can pass from an infectious person to a healthy person by different ways.

When a nurse looks after a patient who has an infectious disease she has two important tasks: to care of the patient and to prevent the spread of infection.

Here are some rules how to prevent the spread of infection and I think a nurse must remember them:

1. The nurse must wear a mask and a special gown when she goes to look after an infected patient.

2. The nurse must wash her hands carefully with soap and running water each time she goes from an infectious patient.

3. Disinfect bed-clothes after use.

Лексика к тексту:

infectious – инфекционный

pass – передаваться

to look after – ухаживать

spread – распространение

wear – носить

gown – халат

bed-clothes – постельное белье

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 11 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

My friend’s illness

Lena is a student of our medical school. She studies in our group. Yesterday she came to the classes after a week’s absence. “What was the matter with you?” I asked her. “I was ill. Do you remember that our anatomy teacher sent me home last week? When I came home I went to bed and took my temperature. It was high. I coughed and had muscular pains. My mother called in a doctor and in the morning the district doctor came. She examined me carefully and prescribed some medicines.” “Please, tell me in detail, Lena, what medicines the doctor prescribed you?” “The doctor said: ‘You will take the mixture three times a day before meal. You must take a table spoonful of it. Shake the bottle well before using. This is the prescription for a gargle. Gargle your throat three times a day. This is the prescription for nasal drops. And these two prescriptions are for tablets. These tablets are good for a headache. Take them twice a week. And these tablets are good for colds. Take them four times a day after meal.” Lena followed all her instructions and soon felt better. She understands that pharmacology is a very important subject and we must pay attention to it.

Лексика к тексту:

a week’s absence – недельное отсутствие

What was the matter with you? – что с тобой случилось?

to take one’s temperature – измерять температуру

muscular pains – мышечная боль

gargle – полоскание, полоскать

nasal drops – капли для носа

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 12 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Our best ward nurse

Nina Ivanova is our best ward nurse. She works at our hospital and everybody respects her very much. In the morning she always comes in to the ward with a smile on her face. And every patient when he sees her kind smile feels better. Everything she does in the ward she does quickly and quietly. If there is a bed-patient in the ward Nina comes up to him. She brushes his sheets or changes them if it is necessary. She shakes his pillow. Then Nina brings a basin and washes the patient’s face and hands. She is especially patient with old people. Nina makes injections and puts mustard plaster. She never hurts her patient with a rude word.

The doctors always says: “When Nina is at work we don’t worry. We know that everything will be all right”.

Лексика к тексту:

bed-patient – лежачий больной

come up – подходить

sheets – простыни

patient – терпеливый

mustard plaster – горчичник

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 13 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Practitioner Services

The Practitioner Services consist of the Family Doctor Service, the Dental Service, and the Pharmaceutical Service. All these services provide the patient with the individual medical attention that he needs.

The professional attention of a family doctor is available to everyone. Patients may choose the doctor they wish, provided only that he enrolled in the Service and that he agrees to attend them. They may also change their doctor. The doctor has the same freedom to accept or refuse patients as he wishes. He cannot be forced to attend any person against his will. The doctor working in the Service is entitled to attend paying patients who have joined the Service, if he cares to do so.

The doctor in the Family Doctor Service is free to treat his patients exactly as the family doctor treated them in the past. If a serious illness develops or diagnosis is difficult the whole team of professionals comes into action.

Лексика к тексту:

Practitioner Services – служба врачей общего профиля

Family Doctor Service – служба семейных врачей

Dental Service – стоматологическая помощь

Pharmaceutical Service – фармакологическая служба

provided that – при условии, что

he is enrolled in the Service – состоит на государственной службе

against his will – против желания этого лица

paying patients – платные пациенты

if he cares to do so – если он пожелает

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 14 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Rickets

The first symptoms of rickets may appear very early when the child is only 2 or 3 months old.

The back of the head sweats and a wet place appears on the pillow. The baby tosses his head from side to side and the back of the baby’s head becomes bald. The child often cries, sleeps badly. The child holds up his head later than other children do; sits later, walks later. Grown up children with rickets have protruding bellies, big heads and crooked legs.

The cause of rickets is lack of sunlight, vitamin “D” in the food and wrong care of the children.

If a mother feeds her baby correctly, keeps the baby in the open air for many hours, her baby will not have rickets.

Лексика к тексту:

rickets – рахит

toss – вертеть

side – сторона, бок

bald – лысый

protruding belly – рахитичный живот

crooked – искривленный

lack of – недостаток

in the open air – на открытом воздухе

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Fever

Fever is the rise in temperature of the body above the normal temperature. The normal temperature of the body is between 97В°F and 99В°F. Fever indicates a symptom of any infection or illness. The common symptoms of fever includes chills, body pain, elevated body temperature, feeling hot or cold, weakness...etc. Basically, any viral or bacterial infection causes fever. However, there are many other reasons for the causes of fever.

Suggestions to treat fever include:

· Take paracetamol or ibuprofen in appropriate doses to help bring your temperature down.

· Drink plenty of fluids, particularly water.

· Avoid alcohol, tea and coffee as these drinks can cause slight dehydration.

· Sponge exposed skin with tepid water. To boost the cooling effect of evaporation, you could try standing in front of a fan.

· Avoid taking cold baths or showers. Skin reacts to the cold by constricting its blood vessels, which will trap body heat. The cold may also cause shivering, which can generate more heat.

· Make sure you have plenty of rest, including bed rest.

Лексика к тексту:

chills – озноб

elevated - повышенный

viral – вирусный

appropriate – соответствующий

Avoid – избежать

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 16 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

I. P. Pavlov

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was a famous Russian physiologist. From his childhood days Pavlov demonstrated intellectual brilliance along with an unusual energy which he named "the instinct for research". Inspired when the progressive ideas which D. I. Pisarev, the most eminent of the Russian literary critics of the 1860s and I. M. Sechenov, the father of Russian physiology, were spreading, Pavlov abandoned his religious career and decided to devote his life to science. In 1870 he enrolled in the physics and mathematics faculty at theUniversity of Saint Petersburg to take the course in natural science. Ivan Pavlov devoted his life to the study of physiology and sciences, making several remarkable discoveries and ideas that were passed on from generation to generation. He won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904.

Лексика к тексту:

generation – поколение

research – исследование

spreading – распространение

to devote – посвятить

remarkable – замечательный

physiologist – физиолог

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 17 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

S. P. Botkin

Sergey Petrovich Botkin was a famous Russian clinician, therapist, and activist, one of the founders of modern Russian medical science and education. He introduced triage, pathological anatomy, and post mortem diagnostics into Russian medical practice.

At the age of 29, in 1861, he became a Professor of Therapeutical clinics department and created the first experimental and analytical medical laboratory in Russia.

In 1873, he was designated the "leib-medic" and elected the President of the Society of Russian medics in St. Petersburg. In 1886, Botkin headed the Commission of Health of Russia's population to lower the high mortality rates in both peacetime and wartime. Botkin Hospital is named after him.

He was the court physician for both Tsar Alexander II and Tsar Alexander III. He was the father of Dr. Eugene Botkin, the court physician for Tsar Nicholas II. Sergey's brother Vasily Botkin was a prominent critic.

Лексика к тексту:

education – образование

triage – сортировка

department – отдел

elected – избран

peacetime – мирное время

court – суд

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 18 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Infection

Infection is the invasion of a host organism's bodily tissues by disease-causing organisms, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. Infections are caused by microorganisms such as viruses, prions, bacteria, and viroids, and larger organisms like macroparasites and fungi.

Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response. Pharmaceuticals can also help fight infections.

The branch of medicine that focuses on infections and pathogens is infectious disease medicine.

The symptoms of an infection depend on the type of disease. Some signs of infection affect the whole body generally, such as fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, fevers, night sweats, chills, aches and pains. Others are specific to individual body parts, such as skin rashes, coughing, or a runny nose.

Лексика к тексту:

prions – прионы

innate – врожденный

Mammalian – млекопитающих

viroids – вириоиды

fatigue – усталость

rashes – сыпи

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 19 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). During the initial infection, a person may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. This is typically followed by a prolonged period without symptoms. As the illness progresses, it interferes more and more with the immune system, making the person much more likely to get infections, including opportunistic infections and tumors that do not usually affect people who have working immune systems.

HIV is transmitted primarily via unprotected sexual intercourse (including anal and even oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV. Prevention of HIV infection, primarily through safe sex and needle-exchange programs, is a key strategy to control the spread of the disease. There is no cure or vaccine; however,antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. While antiretroviral treatment reduces the risk of death and complications from the disease, these medications are expensive and may be associated with side effects.

Лексика к тексту:

disease – болезнь

prolonged – длительный

contaminated – загрязненный

cure – лечение

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 20 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Heart

The heart is a hollow muscle that pumps blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. It is found in all animals with a circulatory system (including all vertebrates).

The term cardiac (as in cardiology) means "related to the heart" and comes from the Greek καρδιά, kardia, for "heart".

The vertebrate heart is principally composed of cardiac muscle and connective tissue. Cardiac muscle is an involuntary striated muscle tissue found only in this organ and responsible for the ability of the heart to pump blood.

The average human heart, beating at 72 beats per minute, will beat approximately 2.5 billion times during an average 66 year lifespan. It weighs approximately 250 to 300 grams (9 to 11 oz) in females and 300 to 350 grams (11 to 12 oz) in males.

Лексика к тексту:

to pump – для перекачки

throughout – по всему

vertebrates – позвоночных

composed – состоит

connective – соединительный

tissue – ткань

involuntary – непроизвольный

hollow – полый

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 21 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Bleeding

Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging , is the loss of blood or blood escaping from thecirculatory system. Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, urethra, or through a break in the skin. Desanguination is a massive blood loss, and the complete loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination. Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties, and blood donationtypically takes 8–10% of the donor's blood volume.

The World Health Organization made a standardized grading scale to measure the severity of bleeding.

Grade 0 no bleeding
Grade 1 petechial bleeding;
Grade 2 mild blood loss (clinically significant);
Grade 3 gross blood loss, requires transfusion (severe);
Grade 4 debilitating blood loss, retinal or cerebral associated with fatality
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Edema

Edema is a condition in which the fluid volume increases abnormally in the circulatory system or in the interstitial spaces of the body cells.

To understand the factors causing edema, it is important to know the mechanism during normal days:
Generally, the body maintains balance of fluid. To maintain the required balance, the amount of water entering the body must be equal to the amount of water leaving the body. The fluids containing oxygen and nutrients pass into the blood tissues from the walls of the blood vessels. In the blood tissues, absorption of nutrients takes place. Later on, after the absorption of the nutrients, the fluid moves back to the blood vessels and then returns to the heart.

The most common symptoms of edema include swelling of face, hands, legs, and feet and around eyes.
The edema that occurs in diseases of the heart, liver, and kidneys is mainly caused by salt retention, which holds the excess fluid in the body.

Лексика к тексту:

swelling – опухоль

Generally – в целом

tissues – тканей

nutrients – питательные вещества

Edema – отек

excess – избыток

Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 23 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Diabetes

Diabetes is a condition in which the body is unable to secrete insulin or it cannot use the insulin secreted, in an effective way. Due to this defect in the secretion of insulin, glucose level in the blood increases as there is not enough insulin to maintain the glucose level. When the glucose level shoots the upper limit, a person is said to be a 'diabetic'.

The common causes of Diabetes are listed below:

 Faulty diet

 Hyper tension and stress

 Obesity

 Hereditary factors

 Excessive sugar and refined carbohydrates intake

The common symptoms of diabetes are listed below:

 Frequent urination

 Excessive hunger and thirst

 Wounds take excess time to heal

 Weight loss

 Dry skin

Лексика к тексту:

to secrete – выделять

to maintain – для поддержания

Excessive – чрезмерный

Faulty – неисправный

Dry – сухой

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 24 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Sunstroke

Sunstroke, also called as heat stroke is a condition in which the body's heat-regulating system fails to function, due to exposure to very high temperatures. Mostly young children and senior citizens suffer this condition.

When the weather is very hot, the human body has the tendency to get rid of excess of heat through sweat. When the body fails to maintain the heat-regulating mechanism, heat gets built-up in the body. This causes heatstroke.

The symptoms of sun-stroke include the following:

 Dizziness and weakness

 Headache

 Skin becomes hot and dry

 Lack of sweat

 Increased heart beats

 Muscle cramps

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 25 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Toothache

Toothache is a pain which may be localized in or around a tooth.

The causes of toothache are as follows:

· Cracked tooth: This may also be invisible and hence difficult to diagnose.

· Dental decay

· Fracture of the tooth

· An exposed tooth root, which can occur if the gums recede or are damaged by over-vigorous brushing.

· An abscess in the gum (lateral periodontal abscess)

· Ulceration of the gums or soft tissues

Home remedies:

· On the affected tooth, place 1 clove of garlic dipped in rock salt.

· Place a piece of raw onion on the tooth.

· Apply clove oil on the tooth.

· Boil 5-6 cloves and 2- inch bark of a Margosa tree (Neem) in 1 cup of water. Strain and store this in the fridge. Smear this decoction on the affected tooth.

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Cough

Cough is the sudden expulsion of air from the lungs. In the process, the air passages get cleared. Cough could also be a symptom indicating a respiratory infection.
Thus, cough is categorized into two types. These two types include acute cough and chronic cough. A type of cough which lasts for less than 3 weeks is termed as acute cough. If cough exceeds 3 weeks, it could be termed as chronic cough.

There are various causes for coughing. Some of them are as follows:

· Common cold

· Sinus infections

· Pneumonia

· Bronchitis

· Asthma

· Environmental allergies

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 27 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Bronchitis

Bronchitis is a condition that occurs when the inner walls that line the main air passageways of the lungs become infected and inflamed. Generally, bronchitis follows a respiratory infection.

The most common causes of bronchitis are as follows:

· Excessive smoking

· Respiratory infections

· Pollution

· Dust

The most common symptoms of bronchitis are as follows:

· Constant coughing

· Severe cold

· Pain in the chest

· Difficulty in swallowing

Acute bronchitis is characterized by the development of a cough or small sensation in the back of the throat, with or without the production of sputum (mucus that is expectorated, or "coughed up", from the respiratory tract).

Chronic bronchitis is characterized by the presence of a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years. Chronic bronchitis usually develops due to recurrent injury to the airways caused by inhaled irritants.

Лексика к тексту:

swallowing – проглатывание

Excessive – чрезмерный

Dust – пыль

  Рассмотрено на заседании ЦМК ОД, ОГСЭ и ЕН Протокол № _________ от «__ »________2013 года Председатель_____________ Н.А.Лазарева   дидактический материал для экзаменационного билета № 28 « Утверждаю»   Зам. директора по учебно-воспитательной работе__________________ Л.Ю.Бородина

Insomnia

Insomnia refers to sleep disorders. If you are frequently experiencing sleepless nights, do not worry. Read all the information given below with a peaceful mind.

The symptoms of sleep disorders are as follows:

· Difficulty in falling asleep

· Being awake at night suddenly

· Waking up too early in the morning

· Unpleasant sleep

The causes of insomnia are as follows:

· Primary insomnia: This category includes causes such as environmental noise, extreme temperatures, stress, changes in the surrounding environment and side effects of medicines. Certain behavioral factors such as excessive use of drugs, alcohol or caffeine, chronic stress and working in shifts may also contribute to insomnia.

· Secondary insomnia: This category includes some specific and more serious causes such as circadium rhythm disorder, restless legs syndrome, heart disease, asthma, parkinson's disease, kidney disease, hyperthyroidism...etc.

Лексика к тексту:

Unpleasant – неприятный

Primary – первичный

surrounding – близлежащий

disorders – растройствами

restless – беспокойный

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Obesity

Obesity is a condition in which the body weight of a person increases above normal due to the accumulation of fats.

The symptoms of obesity are listed below:

· Weight above normal

· Thickness around the midsection

· Fat deposits at various places in the body

· Double chin

Some of the causes of obesity are listed below:

· Genetics: A family history of obesity increases the chances of becoming obese by about 25 to 30 percent. Children whose parents are obese also tend to be overweight. However, the weight can be kept under control by being determined and following the steps required for the same.

· Culture: People eat and cook the way in which they were brought up. If a wrong pattern of diet is followed for a long period of time, it may be a cause for obesity.

· High-Calorie Diet: A person eating a high-fat diet tends to store more excess calories as body fat than someone eating a lower fat diet.

· Medical Problems: Certain metabolic disorders like low thyroid function or hormonal imbalances may also cause obesity.

Лексика к тексту:

overweight – избыточный вес

deposits – месторождение

weight – вес

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Cramps

A cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax. Muscle cramps in any part of the body, generally affect only those muscle groups to which a particular motor neuron is connected.

Muscle Cramp is caused suddenly, without specific reasons, most of the times. However, certain causes of muscle cramps do exist. And, they are listed below:

· Muscle Fatigue

· Heavy exercise

· Dehydration

· Pregnancy

· Some rare drugs (Example: lithium)

· Alcohol consumption

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Wounds

A wound is a physical trauma where the skin is torn, burnt, cut and punctured. When a wound is exposed to air, it may be so fatal that a person may die due to loss of blood (in serious cases). A wound may also allow bacteria to enter and cause an infection.

The causes of wounds are as follows:

· Fall

· Motor vehicle accident

· Mishandling of sharp objects

· Sports-related

· Assault with weapons

The overall treatment depends on the type, cause, and depth of the wound as well as whether or not other structures beyond the skin (dermis) are involved. Treatment of recent lacerations involves examining, cleaning, and closing the wound. Minor wounds, like bruises, will heal on their own, with skin discoloration usually disappearing in 1–2 weeks. Abrasions, which are wounds with intact skin (non-penetration through dermis to subcutaneous fat), usually require no active treatment except keeping the area clean, initially with soap and water. Puncture wounds may be prone to infection depending on the depth of penetration. The entry of puncture wound is left open to allow for bacteria or debris to be removed from inside.

Лексика к тексту:

Minor – незначительный

allow – позволять

vehicle – автомобиль

beyond – за