Table 1. Types of extinguishers. Advantages and disadvantages

Type of extinguishers Colour Advantages Limitations or disadvantages
water fire extinguisher red Good for tackling class A fires involving burning wood, paper, textiles and general combustible materials. It doesn’t contain any harmful chemicals or residual agents and they are kind to the environment.   they are strictly for class A use only and can make the fire worse or be very dangerous to the user if used on the other classes of fire.
foam fire extinguisher cream especially suitable for class B flammable liquid fires such as paints, thinners (растворитель), petrol, and oil spills. Foam is also very effective on class A fires such as man-made furnishings.   they cannot be used on domestic chip or fat pan fires
Type of extinguishers Colour Advantages Limitations or disadvantages
ABC dry powder fire extinguisher blue a multi-purpose and highly effective extinguishing agent, making them an excellent choice for use in most circumstances they leave a powder residue, causing damage to electronic equipment They should not be used in accommodation or food preparation areas, etc.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) fire extinguisher black safe for use on electrical appliances and are non-residual, making it ideal for use in accommodation where sensitive computer equipment would be damaged by using other types of extinguishing agents. As CO2 does not cool the fire very well, there is a risk of the fire re-igniting. Fumes from CO2 extinguishers can be harmful if used in enclosed spaces. The horn freezes during discharge, so care must be taken not to touch it.
wet chemical fire extinguisher yellow specially designed for such fires as in galley involving burning cooking oils and fats like deep fat fryers. No disadvantage for their intended application. It is recommended that the intended user should be trained in the proper application of this specialized extinguisher.

Exercise 6. Read the dialogue and then make up your own one.

A: How do you do, I am a port fire control officer John Brown.

B: How do you do Mr. Brown. I am the third officer. My name is Klimov. What can I do for you?

A: Well, I am to inspect your ship. First of all I want to see the hatches where cargo operations are going on. Under the rules of our port you should place fire extinguishers at each hatch and lay fire hoses connected with shore pumps.

B: Certainly, sir. We don’t violate the rules. We’ve posted a deck-hand on fire watch. He makes regular rounds about the ship and reports to me every half an hour.

A: Very good. And now I’ll see the certificate for the ship’s fire equipment… I see everything is ship-shape. All certificates are valid and I have no claims.

B: … I am on fire. I need help, over.

A: What is the nature of fire? Over.

B: The fire broke out in the engine-room. The fire is deep-seated and inaccessible, over.

A: Do you require a fire party? Over.

B: Positive. I need fire-fighting team. We fear spreading fire. Over.

A: My fire-fighting team will be ready as soon as we reach you. Stand by on channel 16. Over.

B: Standing on channel 16. Out.

 

A: What are the main parts, which include comprehensive requirements to all or specified ship types in regard to fighting fire?

B: They are seven: general (general fire safety objectives), prevention of fire and explosion, suppression of fire and explosion, escape, operational requirements, alternative design and arrangements and special requirements.

A: General requirements include general fire safety objectives, don’t they? And how is suppression of fire and explosion effected?

B: Certainly, they do. Suppression is effected with fire-fighting equipment. As to detection of fire and explosion it is done by fire detection and alarm systems. Remind me, what do operational requirements include?

A: They include maintenance, testing and inspections, training and drills.

Use the given words and expressions to compose your own dialogue:

1. A fire breaks out in the deck cargo. The fire is quite accessible. (to sound fire alarm signal, break the glass of fire alarm box and press the button, to use chemical extinguishers, sand and water, to put out the fire by ship’s means)

2. Fire occurs in the engine room. The fire is inaccessible. (to give fire alarm signal, to activate ship’s fire-fighting system, CO2 extinguishers, foam extinguishing system)

3. During your watch some welding is to be done. What safety precautions should be observed? (to obey regulations, to avoid smoking, combustible substances, power source, sources of ignition, fire sentry, extinction appliances, to ensure ventilation, ‘water wall’)

 

Exercise 7. Choose the right variant.

1. The water supply to the hose ___ be automatic and manual.

a) may c) can
b) must d) should

2. Damaged hoses ____ be removed from service.

a) could c) had to
b) should d) must

3. Each portable extinguisher ____ be tested regularly and according to the instructions.

a) should c) can
b) might d) had to

4. If you see smoke behind a closed door you ___ know a fire size or type.

a) may not c) must not
b) should not d) can not

5. Every crewmember ____ know where fire-fighting equipment is kept and how to use it.

a) must c) may
b) can d) had to

6. These protective suits ___ be used on oil tankers but not for flammable cargoes.

a) must c) can
b) should d) will have to

7. Fixed powder fire extinguishing system will _____ to be used, if the fire is detected & whether its type permits

a) be allowed c) have
b) be able d) may

8. Fire-fighting equipment _____ never be stowed when it is wet or dirty.

a) could c) should
b) might d) would

9. Fire buckets ____ be filled with sand or water.

a) must c) can
b) may d) should

10. The number of fire hoses ____have to include a number of hoses required in the engine-room or boiler-room.

a) do not c) does not
b) not to d) don’t

Exercise 8.  Be ready to discuss the following texts according to the given points:

· the main sense of the text

· the structure of the text

· the possible questions to the main parts of the text