In 2002 the first 3.6 tonne, 17 kW hydrogen (fuel cell)-powered mining locomotive was demonstrated in Val-d’Or, Quebec. In 2007 the educational mini-hydrail in Kaohsiung, Taiwan went into service. The Railpower GG20B finally is another example of a fuel cel-electric locomotive.
5. Answer the questions.
1. What way do locomotives take power?
2. Where are steam locomotives still used?
3. Why were steam locomotives in regular use in China until 2004?
4. What kind of diesel-powered locomotives are the most modern?
5. How is electric locomotive supplied with electric power?
6. Why are electric locomotives easier and cheaper to maintain than diesel-electric locomotives?
7. Why are battery-powered locomotives used in mines and underground locations?
8. What is the main reason to invent hybrid locomotives?
9. What power source does hybrid locomotive use?
10. How does the battery act in hybrid locomotive?
6. Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the Modal verbs:
1. Depending on the conditions of operation, the control posts can be installed for either right-hand or left-hand running. 2. For especially dusty conditions, the locomotive should be provided with an additional internal air-cleaning stage for the air supplied to the engine. 3. When supplied to countries having a hot and tropical climate, the locomotive must be manufactured with a more effective cooling system and with anticorrosive surface finishes. 4. When the route was drawn, its alignment had to be adjusted to fit in the system of four water storages intended for large hydroelectric power plants. 5. The locomotive could be operated in two units with control from the cab of either unit.
7. Read the following text. Give the name to the text. Make a plan and retell the text.
There are a number of different definitions for high-speed rail in use worldwide and there is no single standard. Additionally, lower speeds can be required by local constraints. EC Directive 96/58 defines high-speed rail as systems of rolling stock and infrastructure which regularly operate at or above 250 km/h on new tracks, or 200 km/h on existing tracks. In the United States high-speed rail is defined as having a speed above 110 mph (180 km/h). In Japan high speed Shinkansen lines use standard gauge track rather than narrow gauge track used on other Japanese lines. These travel at speeds in excess of 260 km/h (160 mph) without level crossings. In China there are two grades of high speed lines. Firstly slower lines that run at speeds of between 200 and 250 km/h (120 and 160 mph) and have freight as well as passenger trains. Secondly, passenger dedicated high speed rail lines operate at top speeds of up to 350 km/h (220 mph).
slug – допоміжний
drone – радіокерований
fuel storage – зберігання палива
remote control – дистанційне керування
switching operation – комунікаційна передача
bulk – основна маса, об’єм
load-out – розвантажування
fail-safe – надійний, безпечний
1. Match the words with their definitions.
|fail-safe||control (as by radio signal) of operation from a point at some distance removed|
|fuel||having no chance of failure|
|storage||a material used to produce heat or power by burning|
|remote control||space or a place for storing|
2. Fill in the blank spaces with:
safe, remote control, transmitters, additional, bulk, storage, signal, equipment, load, crew.
1. We need to get our furniture out of …. 2. The bomb was detonated by …. 3. Despite his …, he's a very fast runner. 4. He lifted the … onto his shoulders. 5. We watched the fireworks from a … distance. 6. A construction … will begin work on the house next week. 7. The photographer came early to set up his …. 8. Larger windows will require … work, but the light they will provide may be worth the extra trouble. 9. The teacher gave us the … to finish what we were working on and hand in our tests. 10. Mosquitoes are the main … of the disease.
3. Translate the word combinations from the text into Russian.
Non-powered unit, braking capability, own traction motors, additional fuel storage, remote control radio transmitter, hump yard operations, one-person crew, traditional switching operations, remote control equipment, lead locomotive.
4. Read the text. Express the main idea of the text.
Slug or Drone
A slug or drone locomotive is a non-powered unit attached to a diesel-electric locomotive to provide additional traction and braking capability. The slug has traction motors but no engine, power being supplied by the attached locomotive (known as a ‘mother’). At slow speeds, a diesel-electric prime mover can potentially produce more power than can be usefully used by its own traction motors; a slug increases the number of traction motors available to use the power more effectively.
Slugs are mainly used in rail yards for switching duties, in which case they are normally built without a cab. Other slugs, designed for use on service trains, may be fitted with a cab, which can control the whole consist, and may also provide additional fuel storage for the mother locomotive. In recent years, conventional locomotives have been used in place of slugs on service trains, remotely controlled from the lead locomotive configuration.