Trade fairs and exhibitions usually attract thousands of visitors and many potential buyers among them. So foreign trade associations of Russia never lose a chance to exhibit their products at international fairs and exhibitions both abroad and at home. They help promote our goods to new markets and launch new products in the markets already developed.
A great deal of profitable business is done at commercial centers at the exhibitions: new contacts are made, new transactions are concluded, new orders are placed and new markets are established.
This work goes on after the exhibitions as well: enquiries are sent out for the goods our national economy requires and offers are made for the products; our new contacts are interested in.
There are traditional fairs and exhibitions that are held annually, for example, the Leipzig fair that is organized twice a year – in spring and in autumn in Germany, the Plodiv fair in Bulgaria, the Zagreb fair in Croatia or the Nizhegorodskaya fair in Nizhny Novgorod.
Also, there are fairs and exhibitions devoted to scientific achievements in this or that field of national economy. They are called accordingly: “Chemistry-2012”, “Information and Electronics”, “Building-2012”. About 2000 international fairs and exhibitions are held in various cities of Russia every year.
The chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation is responsible for organizing fairs and exhibitions in our country and arranging participation of our associations and enterprises in fairs and exhibitions abroad.
An Offer, its Kinds
An Offer (a quotation) is a statement by the Sellers usually in written form expressing their wish to sell the goods. But it is not a legal document, i.e. if the Sellers for this or that reason decide not to sell, the Buyers have no legal remedy. An offer is only the first step in a contract.
Offers (quotations) will as a rule include the following information:
a) the description of the goods offered (their quality, quantity);
b) details of prices, discounts and terms of payment;
c) the date or the time and place of delivery.
There may be different kinds of offers.
Sometimes the Sellers may offer their goods to their regular customer without waiting for an enquiry or they may be forced to take the initiative under present competitive conditions and to send their quotation to those who may be interested in their goods. These are voluntary offers or sometimes they are called free offers. They were formerly called offers without obligation.
Then there are firm offers. A firm offer is a promise to supply goods on the terms stated (i.e. at a stated period of time). This promise may be expressed in a letter in the following words: “We make you a firm offer for delivery by the middle of May at the price quoted” or in some other qualifying words like ”The offer is subject to acceptance within fourteen days”, or ”The offer is open for acceptance until the fifteenth of January”.
According to the laws of the Russian Federation, the Sellers making a firm offer cannot withdraw it or change the terms offered before the stated time. According to English and American laws, the Sellers making a firm offer have the right to withdraw it at any time before it has been accepted.
Marketing plays a major role in our daily lives. Each day is filled with consuming products. We pay for marketing each time we buy a product. Marketing is responsible for satisfying customers, which in turn increases our standard of living and quality of life.
In today’s competitive environment, a strong focus on customer satisfaction is essential to the success of any organization. Rapid globalization means that companies now compete in markets all over the world. Foreign and domestic organizations are realizing that profit will only be achieved through the use of marketing. Marketing is the business function that focuses on satisfying the needs and wants of customers through exchange processes. It is the only revenue-producing activity for the organization.
Many people think that marketing is just selling and advertising. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines marketing as the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals. The definition of the marketing describes the nature of the process. Marketing is a continuous cycle that involves satisfying customer needs and wants by creating mutually beneficial exchanges.
The desire for a product together with the ability to pay for it is known as demand, it comes from new customers and repeat customers.
The basis of marketing is exchange, a way to satisfy a want. Exchange is to give or receive something of value for another thing. Value is the worth of a product, usually in money.
The customer is the individual or organization that actually makes the exchange or purchase. The consumer is the person or organization that actually uses or consumes the product. Even though customer and consumer are differentiated, he or she can be one and the same person. Existing or potential customers can be considered a market. A market is a group of customers who have the need, the ability, and the authority to purchase a specific product. Buyers constitute a market.
Before selling the goods, you must do a lot of market research first. The information needed can be obtained from embassies of the Russian Federation, consulates, and trade representations, from the Chamber of Commerce and Industry and from the Institute for Scientific Market Research, from trade associations and trade journals or from specialized consultant companies (who will do a professional market research job for you for a fee).
The information you are interested in is if there is any demand for your goods, what the market potential is, what sort of competition you will meet, i.e. how the price of your goods differs from the price of other competitive products including those produced locally. Local conditions and preferences, local trading customs and habits, seasonal factors should be taken into account.
But in general marketing covers not only market research, but also planning the selection (assortment) of goods, and consequently the production itself, price policy, advertising and promotion of sales, controlling the sales and post-sales servicing.
So marketing is a system of running all the business activities of a company (organization) in respect of coordinating supply and demand for the goods produced. Originally marketing was meant to help avoid over-production in advanced countries.
Advertising is an important means of promoting the goods that are being produced already as well as new lines in business.
There are specialized firms dealing with advertising. Different kinds of mass media – TV, radio, newspapers, cinema, journals, magazines, and posters – are used for advertising goods. Special leaflets, booklets and other printed matter about the goods may be published for the same purpose.