Дистанционное обучение как одна из форм организации процесса овладения МКК

E-learning refers to learning that takes place using technology such as Internet. There are several terms associated with e-learning: Distance learning, Open learning (the more open a distance course is, the more autonomy the learner has), Online learning (online learning is a facet (аспект) of e-learning), Blended learning (is a mixture of online and face-to-face course delivery).

Distance learning technologies present many new options for teaching foreign languages that will further expand the range of instructional techniques in the same way that language labs, television, and computers have augmented the standard classroom. It is important in reviewing these distance learning options to distinguish among their various levels of capability as these systems place different constraints on the instructional process. For instance, one-way, presentation-only systems have been criticized as providing nothing more than a video distribution system that could be replicated by mailing video tapes to students. The lack of immediate two-way interaction that characterizes many

distance education programs seems contrary to the aims of foreign language teaching. However, with this interaction appropriately used, distance technologies can support the goals of foreign language pedagogy. Instructional strategies that encourage student-teacher and student-student dialogue and learner autonomy in distance learning situations must be incorporated into instruction

The success of distance learning in developing students' foreign language skills depends on the ability of the instructional program to provide language learning in face-to-face settings. This capability can now be provided through two-way satellite communications that allow teachers to communicate with students at each site and to provide the interaction needed for development of second language skills.

1) Interactivity. Successful distance education system involves interactivity between teacher and students, between students and the learning environment, and among students themselves, as well as active learning in the classroom. Interactivity takes many forms; it is not just limited to audio and video, or solely to teacher-student interactions. It represents the connectivity the students feel with the distance teacher, the local teachers, aids, and facilitators, and their peers.

2) Active learning. As active participants in the learning process, students affect the manner in which they deal with the material to be learned. Learners must have a sense of ownership of the learning goals. They must be both willing and able to receive instructional messages

3) Visual imagery. Researchers have consistently found that instructional television can motivate and captivate students, and stimulate an interest in the learning process. Reliance on exciting visuals may distort the curriculum by focusing students’ attention on the entertaining and provocative features of the presentation rather than encouraging thoughtful analysis of their meaning.

VI. Strategies for teaching at a distance include:

- differences about distant teaching

- purpose of teaching at a distance

- improving plans and organization

- meeting student needs

- effective usage of teaching skills

- improving interaction and feedback

VII. The challenges in distance education today are: to move away from paper to digital delivery; appropriately encompass learner-centered education; overcome the problems posed by the intrinsic separation of teaching from learning; bridge physical, social and cultural ‘distance’; meet the demands of the post-industrial society. Nowadays whole institutions of higher learning is expanding its own distance and learning activities and helping member countries build their capacities to conduct distance education.

60. Термин "видео" в преподавании иностранного языка может означать как воспроизведение телепрограмм на видеомагнитофоне для учебных целей, просмотр видеофильмов, так и использование видеокамеры в классе для записи и последующего воспроизведения в учебной деятельности учащихся на уроке. Под видеоматериалами (видеозаписями) вслед за Е. Ильченко мы понимаем любую телепродукцию (новости, интервью, ток-шоу, рекламные блоки и т. д.),

а также художественные, документальные, мультипликационные фильмы, записанные на пленку или цифровые носители и используемые в качестве дидактического материала с возможностью многократного просмотра, использования режимов «стоп» и «пауза», быстрого поиска нужного фрагмента.

Видеозаписи подразделяются на следующие виды:

1) видеозаписи фильмов и программ специально для учебных целей;

2) видеозаписи телепрограмм и художественных фильмов;

3) видеозаписи программ по различным специальностям;

4) видеозаписи, созданные самими учащимися.

Видеозаписи стимулируют интерес, дают образец для подражания (речи и; поведения в конкретной ситуации общения), расширяют знания учащихся о стране изучаемого языка, а также в высокой степени мотивируют высказывания о себе, своих жизненных обстоятельствах и интересах, представляют прекрасный материал для дискуссии.

Видеоклип как фрагмент может использоваться для иллюстрации языкового и речевого материала, как сообщение исходной информации для ситуации общения, как информация о стране изучаемого языка, лингвострановедческих реалий, как фрагмент сюжета или сценария.

Чтобы создать мотивацию общения на иностранном языке в учебных условиях, необходимо использовать ситуацию, т.е. обстоятельства, в которые ставится говорящий, что вызывает у него потребность говорить. В процессе просмотра на уроках видеофильмов на иностранном языке, создаются такие условия, когда ученики вступают в разговор, обсуждение. Кроме того, они слушают речь носителя языка, знакомятся с историей, культурой, географией страны. В общеобразовательных школах далеко не все ученики хорошо владеют иностранным языком. Тем не менее, и для такой аудитории в качестве повышения интереса к предмету, а также с целью расширения кругозора, стоит проводить показ видеофильмов.

Далее рассмотрим примерные задачи упражнения для учащихся средних классов на разных этапах организации урока:

Первый этап: подготовительный. На этом этапе выполняются упражнения по аудированию диалогов, которые будут звучать в фильме.

Второй этап: интерактивные упражнения в группе перед демонстрацией фильма.

- диалоги, отражающие ситуацию в фильме;

- обсуждение названия фильма;

- раскрытие сценария фильма

Третий этап: просмотр фильма без звука.

- описание отдельных кадров фильма (стоп-кадр);

- презентация отдельной сцены с последующим ее обсуждением, интерпретацией.

- предвосхищение содержания последующей сцены;

- сбор необходимых для описания сцены лексических единиц

- составление письменно диалога/текста из фильма (групповая работа):

- составление вопросов к просмотренному видеофрагменту

- рассказ содержания видеофрагмента в различных грамматических временах.

Четвертый этап: просмотр фильма со звуком.

- отметить в предложенном списке слова, которые учащиеся «видят» и «слышат»;

- вставить в предложенный текст важные пропущенные слова;

- провести ролевую игру по содержанию видеофрагмента;

- составить вопросы для общения, дискуссии по содержанию фильма выполнить языковые грамматически упражнения, базирующиеся на материал видеофрагмента;

- презентовать содержание фильма в паре или группах.

Пятый этап: упражнения после просмотра видеофильма

- распределить предложения в логической последовательности развития событий в фильме;

- создать продукцию нового собственного видеотекста;

- составить упражнения multiple choice к изображению и к звуковой дорожке;

- ответить письменно или устно на вопросы;

- провести работу над текстом с пропущенными словами;

- создать свой видеофильм.

81. По мнению С.С.Кунанбаевой, на сегодняшний день компетентностный подход олицетворяет инновационный процесс в образовании, соответствует принятой в большинстве развитых стран общей концепции образовательного стандарта и прямо связан с переходом в конструировании содержания образования и системы контроля его качества – на систему компетентностей. Кроме того, многие российские ученые такие как Д.А. Иванов, В.К. Загвоздкин, И.А. Зимняя, А.Г. Каспржак и другие считают, что компетентностный подход является способом достижения нового качества образования. Он определяет направление изменения образовательного процесса, приоритеты, содержательный ресурс развития. И это не случайно, по мнению Таизовой О.С., речь идет о новой единице измерения образованности человека, т.к. знания, умения, и навыки уже полностью не удовлетворяют, не позволяют показать, измерить уровень качества образования [7, С. 89-90]. Поставленный вопрос о компетентностном подходе предполагает, соответственно, рассмотрение термина “компетентность” и содержание “ключевых компетенций”.

Важный вопрос, возникающий при рассмотрении компетентностного подхода, относится к трактовке самих понятий “компетенция” и “компетентность”. Полагаю, что в зависимости от того, как определены эти понятия и их соотношения, может быть понято содержание и самого компетентностного подхода.

Прежде всего отметим, что есть два варианта толкования соотношения этих понятий: они отождествляются, либо дифференцируются. Согласно первому варианту, наиболее представленному в Глоссарии терминов ЕФО, компетенция определяется как:

1. Способность делать что-либо хорошо или эффективно.

2. Соответствие требованиям, предъявляемым при устройстве на работу.

3. Способность выполнять особые трудовые функции.

Там же отмечается, что “... термин компетентность используется в тех же значениях. Компетентность обычно употребляется в описательном плане. В данном случае необходимо подчеркнуть именно практическую направленность компетенций – “Компетенция является, таким образом, сферой отношений существующих между знанием и действием в человеческой практике” [а “компетентностный подход предполагает значительное усиление практической направленности образования

84. Critical thinking refers to the individuals’ ability to think and make correct decisions independently. Nowadays enhancing critical thinking in learners is considered one of the foreign language teachers’ tasks due to its high position in foreign language classrooms. There are various factors affecting language learners’ critical thinking skills. Among these factors is the assessment methods used. Therefore, through managing the ways of assessing language learners' ability, language teachers can help them develop critical thinking skills. In this presentation, some suggestions for language teachers to make sound choice of assessment methods and activities will be presented.

The promotion of critical thinking into the FLT classrooms is of high significance for several reasons. Firstly, if language learners can take charge of their own thinking, they can monitor and evaluate their own ways of learning more successfully. Second, critical thinking expands the learning experience of the learners and makes the language more meaningful for them. Thirdly, critical thinking has a high degree of correlation with the learners’ achievements (Rafi, n.d.). Different studies have confirmed the role of critical thinking in improving ESL writing ability (Rafi, n.d.); language proficiency (Liaw, 2007); and oral communication ability (Kusaka & Robertson, n.d.).The learners may become proficient language users if they have motivation and are taught the ways of displaying critical thinking in foreign language usage, which signifies that the learners must have reflection on their production of ideas, and they may critically support those ideas with logical details (Rafi, n.d.). Language development and thinking are closely related and the teaching of higher-order thinking skills should be an integral part of an L2 curriculum. Educators have emphasized the importance of developing higher-order thinking skills in foreign language classrooms (Chamot, 1995; Tarvin & Al-Arishi, 1991) and empirical evidence supports the effectiveness of teaching critical thinking skills along with the foreign language (Chapple & Curtis, 2000; Davidson, 1994, 1995).

In fact, language learners who have developed critical thinking skills are capable of doing activities of which other students may not be capable. Implied in the study by Mahyuddin et al (2004) is that language learners with critical thinking ability are capable of thinking critically and creatively in order to achieve the goals of the curriculum; capable of making decisions and solving problems; capable of using their thinking skills, and of understanding language or its contents; capable of treating thinking skills as lifelong learning; and finally intellectually, physically, emotionally and spiritually well-balanced.

Language teachers are among practitioners who can greatly influence the type of learning by language learners. Therefore, one of their responsibilities is to help learners develop critical thinking abilities. Maybe even more than L1 teachers, L2 teachers have reasons to introduce their students to aspects of critical thinking (Davidson, 1998). As Lipman (2003) says, teachers are responsible for promoting critical thinking in the learners other than helping them to go from one educational level to the next. The responsibility of foreign language teachers is to help their learners acquire critical thinking skills while learning the language. As Mahyuddin et al (2004) assert there is plenty of room for improvement in incorporating the thinking skills into our curricula.

86. Communication - the most important of the concepts that describe the world of men. Perhaps the variety of functions and roles of communication in human existence and identified the special status of this phenomenon. Based on the fact that the communicative function of communication between people has its own specifics, we hold that the communication - is intersubjectivity process in which there is not an easy flow of information, but at least the active exchange of information. This generates a general sense, and parterres can influence each other. The effectiveness of communication is measured by how it was possible impact. Communication - "transfer of information from one person to another," a complex multifaceted process of establishment and development of contacts between people (personal communication) and groups (intergroup communication), creates the need for joint activities and includes at least three different processes: communication (information exchange) , interaction (exchange operations) and social perception (perception and understanding of the partner)

Learning a language as native and foreign - is nothing like personal needs, which manifests itself in social interaction and communication. Successful communication is based not only on the speaker's desire to get in touch, but also on the ability to adequately implement speech intention. This activity is dependent on the degree of ownership of units of language and the ability to use them in specific situations of communication. However, knowledge of the individual elements of the language itself can not be attributed to the concept of "language proficiency as a means of communication." Through its ownership of communicative competence achieved unity "language - speech" as a means of (language) and the method of its implementation (speech).

M. Hyde believes that the formation of intercultural communicative competence required skill set of language tools vary depending on the situations of communication, speech etiquette, politeness rules, requirements to the choice of subject, and so on. D.

In this sense, intercultural communicative competence must be specially configured Communicative competence is understood as the adequate interpretation of the communicative intentions of the interlocutor, as the willingness and ability to take up through the social communication to the "discernment" and understanding of semantic and pragmatic features members of other lingvosotsiuma, to understanding the "picture of the world a social community believes II Khaleeva. Thus, for the successful implementation of cross-cultural communication is necessary to master not only the language, but also the conceptual system, which includes presentation skills, values, and norms, as a special and everyday social and cultural areas, including knowledge of the rules and regulations of communication.

With regard to the functions (from lat.Functio - design, implementation) communication, then under them understand the outward manifestation of the properties of communication, the roles and tasks that it performs during the life of the individual in society. Allocate the following functions:

- Communication is a form of existence and manifestation of human nature, it plays in the collective activity of people connecting communicative role;

- provides a critical human necessities, a condition of its successful existence, has psychotherapeutic confirming the value (confirmation own "I" by another person) in the life of an individual of any age.

These functions, given their integral nature, are factors that show significantly greater role for human communication than just the transmission of information.

B.Lomov allocates to communicate three functions: information and communication (is any exchange of information), regulatory and communication (regulation of behavior and regulation of joint activities in the process of interaction and affective-communicative (regulation of the emotional sphere of man.

Information and communicative function covers the making, transmitting and receiving information, its implementation has several levels: in the first one alignment differences in the initial awareness of the people who come into contact psychological; second level provides for the transfer of information and decision-making (here implements communication purpose information, education and others.); the third level is associated with the desire to understand the other person (communication aimed at the formation of assessments of progress).

The second function - regulatory and communicative - is the regulation of behavior. By associating a person responsible for the regulation not only of their own behavior, but also the behavior of other people, and responds to their actions, that is, the process of establishing a mutual action.

The third function - affective and communicative - describes the person's emotional sphere, which reveals the attitude of the individual to the environment, including social.

L. Karpenko on the criterion of "the goal of communication" identifies eight functions that are implemented in any process of interaction and ensure the achievement of certain goals in it:

contact (making contact, that is ready for the reception and transmission of messages and maintaining relationships)

information (receiving and sending messages in response to a request)

incentive (target stimulation activity)

Coordination (mutual coordination and coherence in the joint venture)

function of understanding (adequate understanding of the meaning, understanding in general)

emotive (exchange of emotions)

function to establish relations (fixation of their place in society)

influence function (change of state, behavior, personality-semantic structures partner)

Intercultural communication competence (ICC) is the ability to communicate effectively and appropriately in various cultural contexts. ICC requires that students acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and critical cultural awareness necessary to communicate interculturally
There are lots of ‘right’ answers to this question, but many teachers answer that they are teaching English for the purpose of communication with people of other cultures.

As Ter-Minasova emphasizes in her book, “To ensure cross-cultural communication one should not only know the language but also be aware of the system of communicational culture, rules of etiquette, forms of nonverbal communication and have deep background knowledge of values and perceptions accepted in other cultures (for example, of religious beliefs, taboos, public and historic facts, etc.)”

The orientation of the education system of Kazakhstan to the competence approach in the content of education is reflected in the teaching of foreign languages ​​in the formation of cross-cultural competence as an indicator of formation of a person's ability to participate effectively in a foreign language on intercultural communication level.

Professor S.S.Kunanbaevagives the term “subject of intercultural communication” - the ability to communicate on intercultural level.

Subcompetences of ICC
by Kunanbayeva
Linguistic; Lingua-cultural; Compensatory; Educational; Lingua-self-educational