The climate in Great Britain is mild and temperate due to the influence of the Gulf Stream.
The British often say: "Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather." The weather in Britain is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening. And a nasty morning can change to a fine afternoon. That's why it is natural for the British to use the comparison "as changeable as the weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something.
The British also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long.
The weather is the favourite conversational topic in England. When two Englishmen meet, their first words will be "How do you do?" or "How are you?" And after the reply "Very well, thank you; how are you?" the next remark is almost certain to be about the weather. When they go abroad the
British often surprise people of other nationalities by this tendency to talk about the weather, a topic of conversation that other people do not find so interesting.
The best time of the year in Britain is spring (of course, it rains in spring too).
The two worst months in Britain are January and February. They are cold, damp and unpleasant. The best place in the world then is at home by the big fire.
Summer months are rather cold and there can be a lot of rainy days. So most people who look forward to summer holidays, plan to go abroad for the summer - to France, Spain or some other place on the Continent.
The most unpleasant aspect of British weather is fog and smog. This is extremely bad in big cities and especially in London.
The fog spreads everywhere, it is in the streets and it creeps into the houses. Cars move along slowly, but still street accidents are frequent in the fog. People cannot see each other. They creep along the houses touching them with their hands not to lose their way or not to be run over by a car.
Gulf Stream ['длК strhm] Гольфстрим the Continent ['kontinant] континент (так англичане
climate ['klaimit] климат
mild [maild] мягкий
temperate ['temprit] умеренный
due to ['dju: tu:] благодаря, вследствие
influence [Influans] влияние
changeable ['tjeind3abl] изменчивый,
nasty ['na:sti] мерзкий, противный
comparison [kam'paerisn] сравнение
mood [mu:d] настроение
opinion [a'pinjan] мнение
remark [ri'ma:k] замечание
to go abroad [a'bro:d] поехать за границу
nationality [jiaeja'naeliti] национальность
tendency ['tendansi] тенденция
damp влажный, сырой
fire [faia] камин
to look forward ['fo:wad] to с нетерпением ждать
aspect ['aespekt] аспект, сторона
smog (smoke + fog) смог
extremely [iks'titmli] чрезвычайно
to spread [spred] (spread) распространять(ся),
to creep (crept) ползти, красться
accident ['asksidant] несчастный случай
frequent [fitkwent] частый
to lose way заблудиться
to be run over by a car попасть под машину
1. Why is the climate in Britain mild?
2. The weather in Britain is very changeable, isn't it?
3. What comparison do the British use when they want to describe a person whose mood and opinion changes very often?
4. How often does it rain in Britain?
5. The weather is the favourite conversational topic in England, isn't it? Do you find this topic of conversation interesting?
6. What is the best time of the year in Britain?
7. When do the British prefer to stay at home by the big fire?
8. How do the British spend their short British summer?
9. What do you know about London fogs?
10. What kind of weather do you like best of all?
11. Where do you get the weather forecast (['fo:ka:st] прогноз погоды) from? Do you always believe it?
12. Which do you like better: when it's cold or hot?
13. What is the weather like today?
14. Do you know the weather forecast for tomorrow?
15. What is the weather like in Russia in winter (summer, autumn, spring)?
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It's one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million.
London is one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the world.
Traditionally it's divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other and seem to belong to different towns and epochs.
The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre.
Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is St Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of British churches. It was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace and a prison. Now it's a museum.
Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London.
Westminster Abbey has more historic associations than any other building in Britain. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned here. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling.
Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as "Big Ben".
Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It's the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and theatres are situated there. There are splendid houses and lovely gardens belonging to wealthy people.
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square.
On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum - - the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is famous for its library.
The East End was once the poorest district of London - with lots of factories and docks, narrow streets and unimpressive buildings. Today, the district is changing very fast. There are huge offices and new blocks of flats in the East End.
the Bank of England Английский банк
the Stock Exchange ['stok iks^Jeindj] Лондонская
the Old Bailey [,auld 'belli] Центральный уголовный
суд, находящийся в Олд-Бейли
St Paul's Cathedral [sant ,po:fc ka'0i:dral] собор
св. Павла (главный собор англиканской церкви)
Sir Christopher Wren [sa: ,kristafa теп] Кристофер
the Tower f'taua] of London Лондонский Тауэр
Julius Caesar [.djuMias 'si:za] Юлий Цезарь
William the Conqueror j^wiljam da 'kot)kara]
Вильгельм Завоеватель, Вильгельм I
(первый король из норманнов в Англии)
Westminster Abbey [,westminstar 'aebi]
Newton ['nju:tn] Ньютон
Darwin ['da:win] Дарвин
Chaucer ['t|o:sa] Чосер
Dickens ['dikinz] Диккенс
Tennyson ['tenisn] Теннисон
Kipling ['kiplirj] Киплинг
Westminster Palace [,westminsta 'paelis] (the Houses
of Parliament) Вестминстерский дворец (здание
Big Ben "Биг Бен", "Большой Бен" (колокол
часов-курантов на здании парламента, бой
которых передается ежедневно породив как
сигнал точного времени)
Buckingham Palace [.bAkigam -paelis] Букингемский
дворец (главная королевская резиденция в
Trafalgar Square [tra,faelga 'skwea] Трафальгарская
Nelson's Column [,nelsnz 'kolam] колонна Нельсона
(памятник адмиралу Нельсону)
the National Gallery [,naejanl 'gselari] Национальная
галерея (крупнейшее в Великобритании собрание
the National Portrait [ po:trit] Gallery
Национальная портретная галерея
the British Museum Британский музей (один из
крупнейших в мире)
commercial [ka'rra:Jal] торговый
to belong [bi'loo] принадлежать
epoch f'i:pok] эпоха
financial [fai'nsenjal] финансовый
numerous ['nju:maras] многочисленный
ancient ['einjant] древний
striking f'straikio] поразительный, замечательный
church [t}3:tj] церковь
to found [faund] основывать
to rebuild [,ri:'bild] перестраивать
fortress ['fb:tris] крепость
royal ['roial] королевский
palace ['paelis] дворец
prison ['prizn] тюрьма
governmental [,g/vvn'mentl] правительственный
association [a,sausi'ei/n] ассоциация
to crown [kraun] короновать
outstanding [auf staendirj] выдающийся
statesman ['steitsman] государственный деятель
scientist f'saiantist] ученый
painter ['peinta] художник
to bury ['ben] хоронить
tower ['taua] башня
official residence [a,fijal 'rezidans] официальная
wealth [weie] богатство
wealthy [\ге!9!] богатый
symbol ['simbal] символ
luxury ['lAkJari] роскошь
restaurant ['restraint] ресторан
splendid ['splendid] великолепный
in memory of в память о
column f'kolam] колонна
to contain [kan'tein] содержать
priceless ['praislis] бесценный
manuscript ['msenjuskript] рукопись
sculpture ['skAlptJa] скульптура
to be famous for быть знаменитым ..., славиться
narrow ['naerau] узкий
unimpressive [yyiim'presiv] невпечатляющий,
huge [hju:d3] огромный
1. Is London the largest city in the world?
2. What's the population of London?
3. Traditionally London is divided into several parts. Can you name them?
4. What do you know about the City?
5. Who was St Paul's Cathedral built by?
6. Who founded the Tower of London? When was it rebuilt?
7. What is Westminster Abbey famous for?
8. Where does the British Parliament sit?
9. What is Big Ben?
10. Why was Trafalgar Square named so?
11. Why does Buckingham Palace attract so many tourists?
12. What are the most famous London museums and art galleries?
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-boarder with Russia.
The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is more than 270 million.
If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains.
The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska.
America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.
The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It's the world's leading producer of copper and oil and the world's second producer of iron ore and coal. Among the most important manufacturing industries are aircraft, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, armaments, furniture and paper.
Though mainly European and African in origin, Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations, including Chinese and native Americans.
The largest cities are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Washington and others.
The United States is a federal union of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, DC. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the judicial. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic, though there's hardly any difference between their political lines.
the United [ju:'naitid] States of America
Соединенные Штаты Америки
Russia [tAja] Россия
Canada ['kaenade] Канада
China ['tjaina] Китай
North America Северная Америка
the Pacific Ocean [pa,sifik 'aujn] Тихий океан
the Atlantic Ocean [a,tlaentik 'aufn] Атлантический
Alaska [a'laeska] Аляска
Hawaii [ha'wai-i] Гавайи
Mexico ['meksikau] Мексика
District of Columbia [.distrikt av ka'lAmbia] округ
Washington ['wofirjtan] Вашингтон
the Rocky Mountains Скалистые горы
the Cordillera [,ko:di'jeera] Кордильеры
the Sierra Nevada [si,era nivaeda] Сьерра-Невада
Mount McKinley [,maunt ma'kinli] гора Мак-Кинли
the Mississippi [,misi'sipi] Миссисипи
the Missouri [mi'zuari] Миссури
the Rio Grande [,г\:э(и)'дгхпй] Рио-Гранде
the Columbia [ka'lAmbia] Колумбия
the Great Lakes Великие озера (5 озер: Мичиган,
Онтарио, Гурон, Верхнее озеро и Эри)
the Gulf of Mexico [,дл№ av 'meksikau]
Florida ['florida] Флорида
Los Angeles [bs 'aend3ali:z] Лос-Анджелес
Chicago [fitegau] Чикаго
Philadelphia [,fila'delfia] Филадельфия
Detroit [di'troit] Детройт
San-Francisco [.saenfran'siskau] Сан-Франциско
the Congress ['koggres] Конгресс
the Senate ['senit] Сенат
the House of Representatives [,repri'zentativz |
the Republican [ri'pAblikan] and the Democratic
Ldema'kraetik] parties Республиканская и
to occupy ['okjupai] занимать
southern ['злдап] южный
to stretch тянуться, простираться
to include [in'klu:d] включать
total area [ .tautl 'earia] общая площадь
to border [ bo:da] on фаничить с
sea-border морская граница
federal ['federal] федеральный
lowlands [laulandz] низменность, долина, низина
to be located [lau'keitid] находиться, быть
to vary [veari] меняться, варьировать
arctic ['a:ktik] арктический
continental [,kont'rnentl] континентальный
subtropical [,sAb'tropikl] субтропический
typhoon [tai'ftrn] тайфун
coast ['kaust] побережье
highly developed [divelapt] высокоразвитый
oil ['oil] нефть
iron ore ['aian ,o:] железная руда
coal ['kaul] каменный уголь
manufacturing [,msenju'fsektjarir)] промышленный
aircraft ['eakra:ft] самолеты, самолетостроение
textile ['tekstail] текстиль
armament ['a:mamant] вооружение
origin ['orid3in] происхождение
Chinese [tfai'nhz] китайский; китаец
according [a'kotdirj] to в соответствии с, согласно, по
powers f'pauaz] полномочия
branch [bra:ntj] ветвь
the executive [ig'zekjutiv] исполнительная власть
the legislative [,led3is'leitiv] законодательная власть
the judicial [d3u:'dijal] судебная власть
1. Where is the USA situated?
2. What's the total area of the country?
3. What countries does the USA border on?
4. How many states does the USA consist of?
5. What is the capital of the country?
6. Can you name any other cities in the USA?
7. What is the population of the United States?
8. What mountains in the USA do you know?
9. What are the largest rivers?
10. What can you say about the climate of the country?
11. What does the USA produce?
12. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches. What are they?
13. How many chambers does the Congress of the USA consist?
14. What are the main political parties in the USA?
15. Who is the US President now?
Washington is the capital of the United States of America. It's situated in the District of Columbia and is like no other city in the USA. It's the world's largest one-industry city. And that industry is government. The White House, where the US President lives and works, the Capitol, the home of the US Congress, and the Supreme Court, are all in Washington.
Washington was named after the first US President George Washington.
He selected the place for the capital and Pierre L'Enfant, a French engineer, designed the city.
Washington was first settled in 1790 and since 1800 it has been the federal capital.
Washington is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the United States. In the very centre of it rises the huge dome of the Capitol - a big white dome standing on a circle of pillars. The 535 members of the Congress meet here to discuss the nation's affairs. It's easy to get lost in this huge building, full of paintings and statues.
Not far from the Capitol is the Library of Congress, the largest library in the States. It contains more than 13 million books, more than 19 million manuscripts, including the personal papers of the US presidents.
The White House is the official residence of the US President. He works in the Oval Office.
One can hardly find a park, a square or an open area in Washington without a monument or a memorial. The most impressive and the best-known ones are the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument.
There are some important museums in Washington where you can see all kinds of things: famous paintings and sculptures, the dresses of Presidents's wives, the original of the Declaration of Independence, the largest blue diamond in the world, etc.
There are 5 universities in Washington.
There are no skyscrapers in Washington, because they would hide the city's many monuments from view. No building in the city may be more than 40 metres tall.
Thousands of tourists visit Washington every day. People from all parts of the United States come to see their capital.
Washington ['woJiQtan] Вашингтон
the District of Columbia |,distrikt av Кэ'1лтЫэ] округ Колумбия
the White House Белый Дом (резиденция
the Capitol ['kaepital] Капитолий (здание
the Congress ['korjgres] Конгресс
the Supreme Court [su:(sju:) ,pri:m 'ko:t]
Pierree L'Enfant [pi,ea la:n'fa:nt] Пьер Ланфан
the Library of Congress Библиотека конгресса
Oval ['auvi] Office Овальный кабинет (рабочий
кабинет президента США)
the Lincoln Memorial ['liQkan mi'mo:rial] памятник
the Washington Monument о белиск в честь
the Declaration of Independence [,dekle'reijn av
Jnda'pendans] Декларация независимости (приня-
та 4 июля 1776 года вторым континентальным
конгрессом в период войны за независимость
Северной Америки (1775-1783); провозглашала
Отделение колоний от метрополии и образова-
ние самостоятельного государства - США)
to design [di'zain] проектировать, создавать
to settle ['sell] поселять, заселять
huge [hju:d3] огромный, колоссальный
dome fdaum] купол
circle ['S3:kl] круг
pillar f'pila] столб, колонна
affair [a'fea] дело
to get lost заблудиться
to contain [kan'tein] содержать
manuscript ['maenjuskript] рукопись
personal ['рз:зпэ1] papers личные бумаги
official residence [a,fijl 'rezidans] официальная
ibmpressive [im'presiv] производящий
original [a'rid3inl] оригинал
diamond ['daiamand] алмаз, бриллиант
skyscraper ['skai,skreipa] небоскреб
1. Where is Washington situated?
2. Is Washington a typical American city?
3. It's the world's largest one-industry city, isn't it? What kind of industry is it?
4. What important government buildings are situated in Washington?
5. Where does the US president live and work?
6. Who selected the place for the capital of the USA?
7. Is there a monument to George Washington in the city?
8. When was Washington first settled?
9. Who designed the capital of the USA?
10. What places of interest in Washington do you know?
11. How many universities are there in Washington?
12. Why aren't there any skyscrapers in Washington?
THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth's surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometres.
The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Belorussia, the Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA.
There's hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.
There are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.
There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe's biggest river, the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers - - the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena - flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean.
Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world's deepest lake (1,600 metres) is Lake Baikal. It's much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there's much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.
Russia has one-sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.
On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental.
Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.
Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President.
The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.
The capital of Russia is Moscow. It's its largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre. It's one of the oldest Russian cities.
At present, the political and economic situation in the country is rather complicated. The industrial production is decreasing. The prices are constantly rising, the rate of inflation is rather high. People are losing their jobs because many factories and plants are going bankrupt.
But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, there are a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading countries in the world. I'm sure that we, the younger generation, can do very much to make Russia as strong and powerful as it used to be.
the Russian Federation [,feda'reijn] Российская
Europe ['ju:arap] Европа
Asia ['eifa] Азия
the Pacific Ocean [pa,sifik 'aujn] Тихий океан
the Arctic Ocean [,a:ktik 'aujn] Северный
the Atlantic Ocean [a,tl3entik 'aujn] Атлантический
China ['tjaina] Китай
Mongolia [morj'gaulia] Монголия
Korea [kau'ria] Корея
Kazakhstan [,kaezaek'sta:n] Казахстан
Georgia ['0(30:0)33] Грузия
Azerbaijan [,aezabai'd3a:n] Азербайджан
Norway ['no:wei] Норвегия
Finland [linlend] Финляндия
the Baltic ['bo:ltik] States Прибалтийские
Belorus [,belau'rus] Беларусь
the Ukraine [ju:'krein] Украина
the Great Russian Plain Русская
the West Siberian [sai'biarian] Lowland
the Urals ['juaralz] Уральские горы
the Caucasus ['ko:kasas] Кавказ
the Altai [/O'tai] Алтай
the Volga ['volga] Волга
the Caspian ['kaespian] Sea Каспийское море
the Ob [ob], [o:pj] Обь
the Yenisei [jeni'sei] Енисей
Amur [э'тиэ] Амур
Lake Baikal [bai'ka:!] озеро Байкал
the Baltic ['boiltikj Sea Балтийское море
Siberia [sai'biaria] Сибирь
the Far East Дальний Восток
to occupy ['okjupai] занимать
surface ['S3:fls] поверхность
eastern [1:stan] восточный
northern ['пэ:Ээп] северный
total area [,tautl 'earia] общая площадь
square [skwea] квадратный
kilometre ['kila,mi:ta] километр
to wash омывать
to border f'bo:da] on граничить с
sea-border морская граница
There's hardly a country in the world...
Едва ли найдется страна...
variety [va'raiati] разнообразие, множество
scenery ['shnari] пейзаж, ландшафт
vegetation [,ved3i'teijn] растительность
steppe [step] степь
midland ['midland] средняя полоса
tundra ['Undra] тундра
taiga [tai'ga:] тайга
highland ['hailand] нагорье, высокогорная
desert ['dezat] пустыня
to separate ['separeit] разделять
to flow [Паи] into впадать
Siberian [sai'biarian] сибирский
to count ['kaunt] считать
bottom ['botam] дно
to concentrate ['konsantreit] сосредотачиваться,
European [juara'phsn] европейский
vast [va:st] обширный
territory ['teritari] территория
various [vearias] различный
climate ['klaimit] климат, климатический пояс
arctic ['a:ktik] арктический
subtropical [,s/to'tropikl] субтропический
temperate ['tempi-it] умеренный
continental [,konti'nentl] континентальный
oil [oil] нефть
coal [kaul] уголь
iron ore ['aian ,o:] железная руда
mineral resources [ri'soisiz] полезные ископаемые
parliamentary [,pa:la'mentri] парламентский
head of state глава государства
legislative [Jedjis'leitiv] законодательный
powers f'pauaz] полномочия
to exercise f'eksasaiz] осуществлять, выполнять