Study and describe the macrospecimens

Craniopagus. Pay attention to accretion by heads. Give definition for diplopagus. Indicate the period and cause of development for such pathology.

Thoracopagus. Pay attention to accretion in the region of the breastbone. In what period of kymatogenesis does this pathology appear? Give definition for teratogenic period».

Anencephaly and acrania. Pay attention to absence of the brain substance and the bones in the vault of the skull; to prominence of the eyeballs from the orbits, to wide bridge of the nose and low floors of the auricles. In what period of kymatogenesis does this monstrosity appear? Name teratogenic factors.

Cyclopia. Describe the macrospecimen paying especial attention to the face of the fetus, note the presence of one orbit with one eyeball. What period of kymatogenesis does this defect develop? Name the causes of kymatopathies.

Ventricular septal defect of the heart. Describe the macrospecimen paying attention to the ring aperture in the region of the interventricular septum. Characterize the hemodynamics in this defect.

Polycystic kidney. Pay attention to the enlargement of the kidneys, presence of numerous cysts on the surface and in the deep portions of the cortical layer. Describe the cysts: form, size and contents. What organs are injured in polycystosis in addition to the kidney?

Megaloureter. Pay attention to the sharply dilated ureter. Name the period of kymatogenesis in which this defect develops. What are clinical manifestation and complication of this defect? What is the outcome?

Chondrodysplasia. Describe the macrospecimen. Pay attention to the extreme contraction of the upper and lower extremities, their thickening, enlargement of the fetal head. Pay special attention to the short neck, hypoplasia of the chest and thickening of the tongue. What period of kymatogenesis does this defect develop? What is the prognosis for the life of the child? With what is this defect associated often?

Cephalhematoma. Pay attention to accumulation of blood between the periosteum and bones of the vault of the skull. Determine the mechanism of hemorrhage. What are the maternal causes of entailed child injury? Name the causes of birth injury, which are determined by fetal status.

Staphylococcal destruction of the lungs. Describe the macrospecimen paying attention to numerous abscesses under the pleura in the lungs of the newborn. Indicate the possible way of infection penetration to the organism of the newborn. What diseases can be the source of fetal contamination?

Hyaline membrane disease. Describe the lung appearance. Pay attention to the changes in the colour, firm consistence. Describe the pulmonary tissue on incision. What are the causes of this pneumopathy? Determine the cause of death.