Stages of individual work in class Study and describe macrospecimens

Toxic degeneration of the liver. Pay attention to the size of the organ, condition of the capsule and consistence of the liver, appearance of the surface on incision. Name the stage of toxic degeneration, causes of its occurrence and outcomes.

Small-node cirrhosis of the liver with splenomegaly. Describe the appearance of the liver and spleen, size of the organs, condition of the capsule and the surface on incision, consistence. Name the causes of development of the small-node cirrhosis. Characterize the condition of the portal circulation in cirrhosis of the liver.

Cardiac «nutmeg» cirrhosis of the liver. Describe the condition of the surface of the liver, its consistence, appearance of the organ on incision. Name the diseases, when the cardiac cirrhosis of the liver can be developed.

Biliary cirrhosis of the liver in atresia of the bile ducts in children. Define the sizes of the liver, consistence, appearance of the capsule on incision. What kind of biliary cirrhosis is it? Name the causes of development of biliary cirrhosis.

Large-node cirrhosis of the liver. Describe the sizes and appearance of the liver, condition of the capsule, the size of the nodes. Name the causes of development of large-node cirrhosis, its complications and outcomes.

Pigment cirrhosis of the liver and pancreas in hemochromatosis. Pay attention to the appearance of the organs, their colour, consistence, condition of the surface on incision. Name pigments, collecting in the organs in hemochromatosis.

Specify the cause of development of this kind of cirrhosis. What is the colour of the skin in hemochromatosis? What are the results of the changes in the pancreas in this disease?

Varicose phlebectasia of the esophagus. Describe the condition of the veins of the esophagus. In what part of the esophagus does this pathological process develop? Explain the mechanism of its development. In what disease does this pathology develop? Name its complications.

Chronic calculous cholecystitis. Define the size of the gallbladder, the condition of its wall and contents. Specify the factors that promote formation of the stones. Name the kinds of the stones of the gallbladder according to their chemical structure. Name possible complications.

Hemorrhagic pancreatitis. What is the appearance of the pancreas: its size, colour, consistence? Define «acutepancreati-tis». Name its complications and outcomes, classification of pancreatitis.