Questions to control the knowledge

1. Classification of blood circulation disturbances.

2. Definition of arterial plethora, types of general and local arterial plethora, their significance for the organism.

3. What are the types of general and local venous plethora? Their morphologic characteristic and outcome.

4. Morphogenesis of congestive liver fibrosis and brown induration of the lungs.

5. Definition of anemia, causes and outer conditions of local anemia development, its types and significance for the organism.

6. Stases, causes and mechanisms of their development, significance for the organism.

7. Name the terms of bleeding and hemorrhage, mechanisms of development, significance for the organism. Latin terminology.

8. Types of lymphatic system insufficiency, their morphologic manifestations and significance for the organism.

9. Infraction of tissue fluid content, types of hypostases.

10. Definition of thrombosis, embolism, infarct.

11. General and local circumstances and mechanism of thrombus formation.

12. Types of thrombi, their difference from postmortem blood clots.

13. Types of infarcts and mechanisms of their development.

14. Definitions of retrograde and paradoxical embolism.

15. Mechanisms of embolus development.

16. Types of embolus according to their nature.

17. Diagnosis of air embolism on dissection.

18. Significance of embolism to the organism.


Homeostasis, hyperemia, cyanosis, plethora, erythraemia, anaemia, hypoxia, stasis, bleeding, hemorrhage, haemorrhagic infiltration, haemorrhagic diathesis, hematoma, cephalhematoma, bruise, petechias, ecchymoses, insult, apoplexy, hemothorax, hemopericardium, hemoperitoneum, haematuria, haemocephalia, thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, thromboarteritis, thromboendocarditis, spherical thrombus, dilatating thrombus; orthograde, retrograde and paradoxical embolus, thromboembolism, thromboembolic syndrome; infarcts: white, red, white with haemorrhagic crown.


Inflammation is defined as the local response of living tissues to injury caused by any agent. It is body defense reaction in order to eliminate or limit the spread of injurious agent.

Causes. The agents causing inflammation may be as follows:

1. Physical agents (heat, cold, radiation, mechanical injury).

2. Toxic chemical agents (organic and inorganic poisons).

3. Microbiological agents (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi).

4. Immunological agents (cell-mediated, immune complex and antigen-antibody reactions).

Clinico-morphological signs of inflammation. There are 5 main clinico-morphological signs of inflammation: rubor (redness); tumor (swelling); calor (heat), dolor (pain) and functio laesa (loss of function).

The word «inflammation» means burning. This nomenclature has its origin in old times but now we know that burning is only one of the signs of inflammation. The condition develops on the histion.