Write an outline of the text. Pick up key phrases

Render the text using active vocabulary.

52. Make use of the topical vocabulary while discussing the following issues:

1. A nation of educated mothers will have an immeasurable influence for good.

2. We need a new generation of leaders thoroughly schooled in technology to improve our collective economic and social wellbeing.

3. In a few countries education is held back on purpose, out of concern that a literate public will question the actions or the legitimacy of their rulers, while in other countries, education is simply not a national priority.

4. Education is called upon to provide a roadmap to a more prosperous and just society.

5. Today education is the cornerstone of a country’s policy-making.

6. Nothing will give the youth as many opportunities as an education that offers an in-depth understanding of the global picture.


1. Read and translate the text:

Kazakhstan, the ninth largest country worldwide and an anchor of stability in Central Asia, has seen a steady increase of its wealth over the past two decades. Thanks to its vast natural resources, the country is a primary target for international investors. Its former capital city, Almaty has also become an economic hub and is home to the most advanced financial services industry in Central Asia.

However, the financial crisis had an adverse impact on Kazakhstan’s banking system and some of its banks only survived because of support from the national government. With the restructuring of the banking industry, now is an opportune time for the entry of new players and products.

Of Kazakhstan’s 16 million inhabitants, almost two thirds are ethnic Kazakhs, and are mostly Muslims. Since Kazakhstan gained independence in December 1991, the country has been politically stable, unaffected by the ethnic or religious turmoil observed elsewhere in Central Asia.

Kazakhstani banks were not spared from the effects of the recent financial crisis. Despite the measures that have been taken to restructure some of the local banks, low credit portfolio quality is still a critical factor. There is a certain difference between Islamic and traditional banking. There are a number of principles that need to be adhered to for compliance with Shari’ah rules and principles. The most important is the prohibition of interest (riba) and extreme uncertainty (gharar). Although Islamic banks may offer a wide range of services – many of which are comparable to the products offered by conventional banks – the mechanisms to generate revenue are different.

The Government of Kazakhstan recognizes the importance of Islamic finance as a strategic development tool for the country. There are plans for Kazakhstan to become the regional centre for Islamic Finance in the CIS in the near future. With this in mind, the Regional Financial Centre of Almaty city (RFCA) and other relevant authorities developed an Islamic Finance Development Road Map for the nearest future.

Will Islamic Banking be accepted in Kazakhstan? The answer to this question can only be determined by market forces. Obviously, the acceptance of Islamic banking products will depend heavily on competitive pricing. This will propel Almaty, Kazakhstan’s financial hub, towards becoming the central gateway for Islamic banking across CIS, and in particular, Central Asia.

2. Match lines in both columns to find equivalents:

turmoil враждебный, неблаготворный, вредный
hub благоприятный, подходящий
opportune запасной, лишний, свободный, дополнительный
adverse центр (событий, внимания, деятельности)
spare обычный, традиционный; общепринятый
conventional шум, суматоха; беспорядок

3. Make the adjectives given in the box opposite in meaning by putting them in the appropriate column:

favourable, suitable, convenient, expedient, advantageous, timely, seasonable, opportune
un- in- dis-

4. Match the equivalents:

at the hub of activity своевременный дождь
opportune remedies в значительной степени
up to the hub эффективные лекарства
opportune moment своевременное предложение помощи
opportune rain не жалеть сил
opportune offer of assistance в центре событий
spare room подумать о ком-л.
in one's spare time комната для гостей
to spare no expense на досуге
to spare no effort идти на любые расходы
to spare a thought for smb удобный момент

5. Give synonyms:

well-timed centre

opportune disorder

hostile reserve / standby

6. Translate the sentences into Russian:

I.1. The country was in turmoil because of the recent political scandal. 2. He couldn't have arrived at a less opportune moment. 3. The opportune use of humour may help to lower tension. 4. I believe that I have arrived at a very opportune moment. 5. The timing of the meetings was opportune. 6. He endured years of inner turmoil. 7. It is adverse to their interests. 8. Your mind is in such a turmoil you do not know what you are saying. 9. Unfavourable taxes are having an adverse effect on production. 10. The police said that Mr Hadfield's decision would have no adverse effect on the progress of the investigation.

II.1. Despite the adverse conditions, the road was finished in just eight months. 2. Can you spare me a cigarette? 3. We should spare a thought for the poor. 4. It was a horrible accident. Please spare me the details. 5. Elegantly simple her clothes are smart and spare in style. 6. The country had until now been spared the violence occurring elsewhere. 7. In her concern to help others, she has never spared herself. 8. You can cook the meat either in a microwave or in a conventional oven. 9. Her views are remarkably conventional. 10. Karen was very conventional about her views of marriage.


Compare the following two words adverse and averse which are related in origin but do not have the same meaning.

Adverse means ‘unfavourable or harmful’ and is normally used of conditions and effects rather than people, as in adverse weather conditions.

Averse, on the other hand, is used of people, nearly always with to, and means ‘having a strong dislike or opposition to something’, as in I am not averse to helping out.

A common error is to use adverse instead of averse, as in He is not adverse to making a profit. (incorrect)

7. Read and translate the text: