TASK 7. Change the voice of the verb in bold type. Rewrite the whole sentence

1) The Founding Fathers wrote the US Constitution in 1787.

1) The US Constitution was written by the Founding Fathers in 1787.

2) They have assembled all their private law into a code.

2) All their private law has been assembled into a code by them.

3) Property law governs the ownership and use of property.

3) The ownership and use of property are governed by property law.

4) The Government is enacting and codifying much of their public law now.

4) Much of their public law is being enacted and codified by the Government now.

5) Conflicts between a constitution and other laws are settled by constitutional law.

5) The Constitutional law settles conflicts between a constitution and other laws.

6) The theory of separation of powers that provides for three functions of government was put forward by Montesquieu.

6) Montesquieu put forward the theory of separation of powers that provides for three functions of government.

7) No woman has ever been appointed by the Queen as a judge in the House of Lords.

7) The Queen has ever appointedno woman as a judge in the House of Lords.

8) The rules of judicial precedent mean that judges should follow a binding precedent even where they think it is bad law, or inappropriate.

8) The rules of judicial precedent mean that a binding precedent should be followed by judges even where they think it is bad law, or inappropriate.

9) Case law is made by judges in the cases they try; the verdicts of juries never make case law.

9) Judges make case law in the cases they try; case law is never made by the verdicts of juries.

10) If the decision of a lower court is appealed to a higher one, the higher court may change it if it feels the lower court has wrongly interpreted the law.

10) If the decision of a lower court is appealed to a higher one, it may be changed by the higher court if it feels the law has been wrongly interpretedby a lower court.

TASK 8. Translate the following sentences in written form paying attention to the tense and voice forms of the verb predicate.

1) Ignorance of the law is not accepted as an excuse for breaking it. Незнание закона не принимается, как оправдание в нарушении его.

2) No objections to the bill have been offered so far. Никакие возражения против законопроекта не были приняты до сих пор.

3) The judge referred to the precedent in making his decision. Судья сослался на прецедент в принятии своего решения.

4) Most systems can be classified as either a common-law system or a Roman-law system. Большинство систем могли классифицироваться или как система общего права, или как система Римского права.

5) The bill was rejected by Parliament yesterday. Законопроект был отклонен Парламентом вчера.

6) He will make a statement in Parliament tomorrow. Он сделает заявление в Парламенте завтра.

7) Constitutional law covers the principles outlined by the constitution and conflicts between the constitution and other laws. Конституционное право охватывает принципы, изложенные конституцией и конфликты между конституцией и другими законами.

8) They have already been debating for two hours. Они уже дебатировали в течении двух часов.

9) Weber, a German sociologist, argued that the primary role of law is to maintain order in society; his view was that without the coercive power of law, order could not be maintained. Вебер, Немецкий социолог, спорил, что главная роль закона поддерживать порядок в обществе; по его мнению без принудительной власти закона, порядок не может быть поддержан.

10) When you consult a lawyer about a legal problem, the lawyer will do research to determine if a case similar to yours has already been decided and in whose favor. Когда ты консультируешься с адвокатом о правовой проблеме, адвокат проведет исследование, чтобы определить, вынесли ли уже по делу, подобному вашему, решение и в чью пользу.

TEST 8

VARIANT 1

(4th Year 8th Term)