VII. Fill in the gap with an appropriate word

Практикум по английскому языку для студентов

Курса инженерно-строительного факультета

Content

  1. Unit 1 Why Man Builds.............................................................................................2
  1. Unit 2 Building Materials..........................................................................................5
  1. Unit 3 Autonomous Building...................................................................................13
  1. Unit 4 Foundations...................................................................................................18
  1. Unit 5 Roofs............................................................................................................22
  1. Unit 6 Man Must Build............................................................................................29
  1. Unit 7 Irrigation Dams.............................................................................................34
  1. Unit 8 From Wasteland to Farmland.......................................................................39
  1. Unit 9 Bridges...........................................................................................................43
  1. Unit 10 Tunnels.........................................................................................................49
  1. Unit 11 Roads and Airfields.....................................................................................53

Unit 1

Why Man Builds

I. Memorize the following words and expressions:

a canal - канал

irrigation - орошение

reclamation works – мелиоративные работы

water supply - водоснабжение

a water turbine - гидротурбина

tо harness – обуздать, использовать

to provide - обеспечивать

to relieve - облегчать, освобождать

adequate-достаточный

an arduous task- трудная задача

II. Read the text

Why Man Builds

In his never-ending struggle lo tame nature, man has been driven by four basic needs:agriculture, building, communications, and power. The practical art and science of civil engineering arose and grew lo meet these needs.

When primitive men gave up their life of wandering, they became tillers of fields, settlingin small communities. To find shelterfrom the weather and storage for his harvest, man became a builder. In the course of time, different settlements came to depend on each other for the ex­change of goods. And so there had to be links between settlements to provide passage for men and materials. Eventually, men learned lo harness the power of nature to relieve them of some of the arduous tasks of everyday life.

Agriculture gave rise to hydraulic engineering, which developed from the irrigation basins and canals of ancient people, from their transient reclamation works to the vast irrigation and reclamation projects of today. Building gave rise to structural engineering, which developed from the monumental architecture of Egypt, Greece, and Rome, to the great framed structures of today. Communications gave rise to the widest variety of civil engineering works. From the curliest times man has used tracks, mountain passes, rivers and sea for transport, and now, in the 20th century he also uses the air. As his civilization became more intricate, so the need for safe and speedy passage for himself and his material goods began to grow. In time, his tracks developed from the jungle path lo the paved Roman road, and lo the great concrete highways of today.

Power was first derived from the ox trudging in a circle, and man treading a wheel, from primitive capstan and rope pulley block; then from the windmill, and finally from today's water turbine at the foot of a massive dam. As world population increases, so the provision of adequate water and power supply grows-more urgent.

III. Answer the questions:

1.Which basic needs forced primitive men to tame nature?

2. Why did man become a builder?

3. What works did hydraulic engineering develop from?

4. Where did the widest varied of civil engineering works derive from?

5. How did ancient people get power?

6. What engineering problems do people have to solve nowadays?

IV. Match the words with their definitions:

1. Civil engineering a) The design construction and maintenance of bridges roads, aqueducts and related public works

2. Structural engineering b) The design construction and maintenance of irrigation and reclamation project, canals, dams

3. Hydraulic engineering c) The design and construction of all kinds of buildings.

V. Complete the sentences:

1. Hydraulic engineering developed

It deals with ...

2. Structural engineering derived from..

It covers ...

3. Civil engineering appeared as …
It concerns...

VI. Match the pairs of synonyms:

1. to increase a) lo reduce

2. to develop b) sufficient

3. to decrease c) to advance from one stage to another

4. to derive d) to grow

5. to relieve e) pressing

6. adequate f) to free

7. urgent g) to originate

8. intricate h) complicated

VII. Fill in the gap with an appropriate word.

to rise

to raise

to arise

1. The science of civil engineering ____ andgrew lo meet the needs of man.

2. The number of irrigation basins and canals ______ rapidly.

3. Building gave _____to gave to structural engineering.

4. Ancient people__________ the first dams to harness the power of water.

5. Nature _______the task for people to develop hydropower engineering.

6.

The growth of population ______ the problem of adequate water supply.

VIII. Speak on the topic "I've chosen civil engineering as a career because ... Highlight at least 5 points; which make the profession so attractive".