Political system of Australia

Australia is a constitutional monarchy, with the Queen of Great Britain at its head.

It consists of six states and two territories.

The queen is represented by the Governor General, who is appointed by the Australian government. The Governor General appoints members of the Executive Council, his advisory cabinet.

The main legislative body in the country is Federal Parliament. It consists of the Queen, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The members of the Senate are elected for a six-year term. There are ten senators from each state and two from each territory in the Senate. The House of Representatives is elected by general direct vote for a three-year term.

The executive power belongs to the queen and the government. It is headed by the Prime Minister. The ministers are chosen from members of Parliament and the Executive Council.

There are two major political parties in Australia: the Australian Labour party and a coalition of the Liberal and the Agrarian parties.

Till the 1930s Australia mostly depended upon Great Britain in its political affairs. But in 1931 Australia became fully independent from Great Britain.

The Australian Constitution took effect on January 1st 1901. There are six state-governments (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania), two self-governing territories (the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory), and a national government (also called Commonwealth government).

The Commonwealth parliament can make laws about external affairs, interstate and international trade, defense and immigration. The state parliaments cannot make laws that are inconsistent with Commonwealth laws.

The national legislative power is divided between two chambers, or “Houses”: the House of Representatives and the Senate, both directly elected by the Australian people. The Australian government is formed by the party or coalition of parties that has the majority in the House of Representatives. Currently, Malcolm Turnbull is a Prime Minister.

In Australia, every citizen that has turned eighteen has to vote or he will have to pay a small penalty, resulting in a participation rate of more that 90%! Each citizen has to vote for the elections of the three “levels”: national, state or territorial, and local.

The states have two Houses each, except for Queensland, and the territories have one House. State parliaments and governments are responsible for: law and order, consumer affairs, health, education, forestry, public transports and main roads.

There are two main political forces in Australia. The political system in Australia is therefore a two-party system:

§ A coalition of the Liberal and National Parties (which has governed Australia for periods totaling more than 40 years)

§ The Australian Labor party (which has governed Australia for periods totaling 20 years).

3. Translate the following word combinations:

Constitutional monarchy, advisory cabinet, legislative body, direct vote, executive power, major political parties, external affairs, international trade.

4. Match the sentences according to the information of the text:

1 Australia is a constitutional monarchy, a is Federal Parliament.
2It consists of b to the queen and the government.
3The main legislative body in the country c the Australian Labour party and a coalition of the Liberal and the Agrarian parties.
4There are ten senators from each state and d national, state or territorial, and local.
5 The executive power belongs e with the Queen of Great Britain at its head.
6There are two major political parties in Australia: f external affairs, interstate and international trade, defense and immigration.
7But in 1931 Australia became g that has the majority in the House of Representatives.
8The Commonwealth parliament can make laws about h six states and two territories.
9The Australian government is formed by the party or coalition of parties i two from each territory in the Senate.
10Each citizen has to vote for the elections of the three “levels”: j fully independent from Great Britain.

5. Give the definitions of the following words:

1monarchy a the female ruler of a country
2 queen b the most important minister and leader of the government in some countries which have a parliament
3 government c organization with particular beliefs and aims, which you can vote for in elections
4 parliament d someone who lives in a particular town, country, or state
5 prime minister e a punishment for breaking a law, rule, or legal agreement
6party f the system in which a country is ruled by a king or queen
7election g a set of basic laws and principles that a country or organization is governed by
8citizen h the group of people who are elected to make a country's laws and discuss important national affairs
9Constitution i the group of people who govern a country or state
10penalty j when people vote to choose someone for an official position

6. Complete the sentence according to the information from the text:

1. Australia is a constitutional monarchy,… .

2. The Governor General appoints members of the Executive Council, … .

3. Federal Parliament consists of … .

4. There are ten senators from each state and ….

5. The ministers are chosen from members … .

6. Till the 1930s Australia mostly depended upon … .

7. The Australian Constitution took effect … .

8. The Commonwealth parliament can make laws … .

9. The national legislative power is divided between two chambers, … .

10. State parliaments and governments are responsible for: … .

7. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. Australia consists of six states and two territories. 2. The main legislative body in the country is Senate. 3. Federal Parliament consists of the Queen, the Senate and the House of Representatives. 4. The members of the Senate are elected for a six-year term. 5. There are seven senators from each state and five from each territory in the Senate. 6. The executive power belongs to Federal Parliament. 7. There are two major political parties in Australia: the Australian Labour party and a coalition of the Liberal and the Agrarian parties. 8. In 1931 Australia became fully independent from Germany. 9. The Australian Constitution took effect on January 1st 1910. 10. The state parliaments cannot make laws that are inconsistent with Commonwealth laws.

8. Ответь письменно на вопросы:

1. Who is the Head of Australia?

2. Who is appointed by the Australian government?

3. When did Australia become fully independent from Great Britain?

4. What is the main legislative body in the country?

5. What are two main political forces in Australia?

9. Make up your own sentences according to the model:

1. The main legislative body in Australia is Federal Parliament. (2 предложения), например: The main legislative body in Russia is Federal Assembley.

2.The members of the Senate in Australia are elected for a six-year term. (1 предложение), например: The members of the Duma in Russia are elected for a five-year term.

Тема 3: Canada

1.Прочитайте и выучите слова:

Quebec Квебек (провинция Канады)
Toronto Торонто
Montreal Монреаль (город в Канаде, провинция Квебек)
Ottawa Оттава
St. Elias Mountains горы Святого Ильи
Alberta Альберта (провинция Канады)
Saskatchewan Саскачеван (провинция Канады)
Manitoba Манитоба (провинция Канады)
Hudson Bay Гудзонов залив
the Canadian Shield Канадский щит
the Erie озеро Эри
the Ontario озеро Онтарио
the Niagara Peninsula  
New Brunswick Нью-Брансуик
Nova Scotia Новая Шотландия (провинция Канады)
Prince Edward Island Остров Принца Эдуарда (провинция Канады)
Newfoundland пров. Ньюфаундленд
   
monarch монарх
province провинция
ancestry происхождение
maintaining сохранение
symbolize символизировать
harsh суровый
mighty великий, могущественный
indent изрезывать, надрезать, придавать зигзагообразное очертание
shield защищенный
hoodoo порча, сглаз, невезение, неудача
dinosaur fossils окаменелости динозавра
zinc цинк
uranium уран
ablaze сверкающий, блестящий
sap сок
maple syrup кленовый сироп
culinary delicacy лакомство
flourish преуспевать
profusion изобилие